Tax ID:


DUNS Number:


Tax-Exempt Status:


Budget (2020):

Revenue: $4,597,756
Expenses: $4,260,770
Assets: $3,005,088


Environmental Advocacy




Jennifer Krill

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Earthworks is an environmentalist nonprofit organization based in Washington, D.C. that advocates for strict environmental regulations, particularly on the fuel and mining industries. Earthworks has opposed the use of zero carbon nuclear energy. 1


Earthworks was formed from the merger of the Mineral Policy Center and the Oil and Gas Accountability Project in April 1988. 2

The organization, which advocates for strict environmentalist regulations, has four program areas: “Fighting Mining Injustice,” which focuses on the mining and minerals industry; “Ending Oil & Gas Expansion,” which focuses on fuel producers and distributors, and supports local campaigns and protests; “Protecting Climate from Oil & Gas Methane Pollution,” which studies environmental pollution allegedly resulting from fuel production and use and advocates for state and federal regulations limiting their prevalence; and “Making Clean Energy Clean, Just and Equitable,” which focuses on advocacy for alternatives to conventional fuels and mineral resources and recycling practices. 3


Earthworks criticized the Biden administration’s announcement that the President would issue an executive order pursuant to the Defense Production Act to secure reliable supply chains for minerals used in electric vehicle batteries by facilitating the recycling of old batteries, re-mining waste from existing mines, and supporting newly permitted mines. 4 Among other things, the organization’s statement noted that President Joe Biden’s use of the Defense Production Act would add “ to the generational trauma experienced by mining affected communities, particularly Indigenous communities.” 5

On April 26, 2022, Earthworks joined a coalition of environmentalist organizations, including Cultural Survival, EarthJustice, Friends of the Earth, Global Witness, Oxfam America, the Sierra Club, the Wilderness Society, Wild Connections, and New Energy Nexus, in sending a letter to members of Congress in support of the Clean Energy Mineral Reform Act sponsored by Rep. Raul M. Grijalva (D-AZ). 6 7 If passed, the bill would prohibit the issuance of specified mining patents, establish a 12.5 percent royalty on new mining operations and an eight percent royalty on existing operations, and increase compliance requirements for the mining exploration permit process. As of April 27, 2022, the bill was referred to the Subcommittee for Indigenous Peoples of the United States of the House Natural Resources Committee. 8

On June 30, 2022, following the release of the Supreme Court of the United States decision in West Virginia v. Environmental Protection Agency concerning the power of the EPA to regulate carbon dioxide emissions under the Clean Air Act, which found in favor of West Virginia, Earthworks policy director Lauren Pagel asserting that President Biden “must now declare” a climate emergency. As part of this declaration, Pagel advised that the Biden administration “begin denying permits for oil and gas infrastructure.” 9

On September 12, 2022, Earthworks published a statement in support of a letter opposing an amendment to the Inflation Reduction Act proposed by Sen. Joe Manchin (D-WV). The proposal, which the letter dubbed “a side deal,” would reduce regulatory strictures on companies involved in mineral extraction, provide for accelerated federal review of proposed projects, and set the scope of federally mandated environmental study entailed in the project approval process. Pieces of legislation supported in the letter include the Environmental Justice for All Act and Requirements, Expectations, and Standard Procedures for Effective Consultation with Tribes (RESPECT) Act proposed by Grijalva and Rep. Donald A. McEachin (D-VA). 10

On September 13, 2022, Earthworks published a post in support of a petition urging the Biden administration to reject the application for the Sea Port Oil Terminal, a new fuel venture in Brazoria and Harris counties in Texas. According to Earthworks, the venture, which produces two million barrels of crude oil per day for global export, would increase pollution in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria region. Other organizations supporting the petition, including Citizens for Clean Air and Water in Brazoria County, the Texas Campaign for the Environment, the Sierra Club, and the Turtle Island Restoration Network. 11

Opposition to Nuclear Energy

Earthworks was one of more than 600 co-signing organizations on a January 2019 open letter to Congress titled “Legislation to Address the Urgent Threat of Climate Change.” The signatories declared their support for new laws to bring about “100 percent decarbonization” of the transportation sector but denounced nuclear power as an example of “dirty energy” that should not be included in any legislation promoting the use of so-called “renewable energy.” 12

Nuclear power plants produce no carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gas emissions, and as of 2021 accounted for 19 percent of American electricity production—the largest source of zero carbon electricity in the United States. 13 An October 2018 proposal from The Nature Conservancy noted that zero-carbon nuclear plants produced 7.8 percent of total world energy output and recommended reducing carbon emissions by increasing nuclear capacity to 33 percent of total world energy output. 14

Financial Support

Organizations that have provided over $10,000 in funding to Earthworks include the Aria Foundation, Chorus Foundation, Civil Society Institute, Colcom Foundation, Environmental Defense Fund, Energy Action Fund, Leaves of Grass Fund, Lisa and Douglas Goldman Fund, New-Land Foundation, Overbrook Foundation, Partnership Project, Patagonia Org, Proteus Fund, Rockefeller Brothers Fund, Scherman Foundation, Schmidt Family Foundation, Threshold Foundation, Tiffany & Co. Foundation, and Wyss Foundation. 15


Jennifer Krill has been the executive director of Earthworks since January 2010. Additionally, Krill sits on the board of directors of Plug In America (which she cofounded), which advocates against conventional fuel sources; the board of the Labor Network for Sustainability, an environmental and labor issues organization; the advisory committee of the Business Ethics Network, a left-leaning regulatory issues organization; as well as the advisory committee of the Western Mining Action Network. Previously, Krill was a campaign director at the Rainforest Action Network, an environmentalist organization focused on the conservation of old growth forests. 16

Rachel Kerr has the been the energy program director of Earthworks since January 2022. Previously, Kerr worked in programming with the Alliance of Nurses for Healthy Environments, and as a hospital nurse. 17

Lauren Pagel has been the policy director of Earthworks since February 2006. Previously, Pagel was an outreach organizer with the Union of Concerned Scientists, an environmental organization; a legislative fellow with Friends of the Earth; a campaign assistant with the Mineral Policy Center; and a mid-Atlantic field organizer with United States Public Interest Research Group (U.S. PIRG). Additionally, Pagel is a member of the board of the Western Leaders Network. 18 19


  1. “Group letter to Congress urging Green New Deal passage.” Earthworks. January 10, 2019. Accessed July 27, 2023.
  2. “History of Earthworks.” Earthworks. 2020. Accessed September 19, 2022.
  3.  “What we do.” Earthworks. 2020. Accessed September 19, 2022.
  4. “FACT SHEET: President Biden’s Plan to Respond to Putin’s Price Hike at the Pump.” White House: Briefing Room. March 31, 2022. Accessed September 26, 2022.
  5. “STATEMENT on Executive Order Authorizing Defense Production Act for Battery Minerals.” Earthworks. March 31, 2022. Accessed September 26, 2022.
  6. “Coalition Sends Letter to Members of Congress Urging Swift Passage of the Clean Energy Minerals Reform Act to Update Mining Laws to 21st Century.” Earthworks. April 26, 2022. Accessed September 26, 2022.
  7. “hrm 2022 reform support letter.” EarthJustice. April 25, 2022. Accessed September 26, 2022.
  8. “H.R.7580 – Clean Energy Minerals Reform Act of 2022.” Updated: April 27, 2022. Accessed September 26, 2022.
  9. Pagel, Lauren. “Statement on SCOTUS Decision in West Virginia V. EPA” Earthworks. June 30, 2022. Accessed September 26, 2022.
  10. “161 Social Justice, Conservation Groups Oppose Harmful Mining Provisions in Manchin’s Industry Side Deal.” Earthworks. September 12, 2022. Accessed September 19, 2022.
  11. “50,000+ Urge Biden Administration to Terminate New Oil Project on Texas Coast.” Earthworks. September 13, 2022. September 19, 2022.
  12. “Group letter to Congress urging Green New Deal passage.” Earthworks. January 10, 2019. Accessed July 27, 2023.
  13. “Nuclear explained.” U.S. Energy Information Administration. Accessed July 25, 2023.
  14. “The Science of Sustainability.” The Nature Conservancy. October 13, 2018. Accessed July 25, 2023.
  15. “2020 Earthworks Annual Report.” Earthworks. 2020. Accessed September 19, 2022.
  16. “Jennifer Krill.” Earthworks. Accessed September 19, 2022.
  17. “Rachel Kerr.” Earthworks. Accessed September 19, 2022.
  18. “Lauren Pagel: Policy Director Earthworks.” United States House of Representatives. Accessed September 26, 2022.
  19. “Lauren Pagel.” Earthworks. Accessed September 19, 2022.

Directors, Employees & Supporters

  1. Jay Halfon
    Board Member

Supported Movements

  1. Green New Deal (GND)
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Nonprofit Information

  • Accounting Period: December - November
  • Tax Exemption Received: April 1, 1988

  • Available Filings

    Period Form Type Total revenue Total functional expenses Total assets (EOY) Total liabilities (EOY) Unrelated business income? Total contributions Program service revenue Investment income Comp. of current officers, directors, etc. Form 990
    2020 Dec Form 990 $4,597,756 $4,260,770 $3,005,088 $212,683 N $4,583,174 $0 $1,985 $160,779 PDF
    2019 Dec Form 990 $4,935,966 $4,263,721 $2,616,611 $161,364 N $4,869,711 $36,355 $4,676 $153,940 PDF
    2018 Dec Form 990 $3,594,028 $4,033,080 $2,011,059 $228,474 N $3,509,953 $0 $4,653 $143,812 PDF
    2017 Dec Form 990 $4,538,420 $3,301,953 $2,390,653 $168,977 N $4,484,380 $31,952 $3,199 $132,495 PDF
    2016 Dec Form 990 $2,598,224 $2,626,815 $1,128,629 $143,512 N $2,584,901 $1,513 $1,896 $129,596
    2015 Dec Form 990 $2,402,549 $2,147,339 $1,118,176 $104,533 N $2,378,281 $15,046 $552 $127,394 PDF
    2014 Dec Form 990 $2,258,810 $2,149,853 $858,346 $99,832 N $2,239,804 $5,125 $766 $117,176 PDF
    2013 Dec Form 990 $2,223,490 $2,024,990 $764,759 $115,202 N $2,196,716 $21,278 $1,716 $103,771 PDF
    2012 Dec Form 990 $1,721,781 $1,594,934 $544,219 $93,162 N $1,679,517 $0 $848 $92,700 PDF
    2011 Dec Form 990 $1,376,880 $1,874,228 $389,867 $65,657 N $1,343,417 $0 $2,779 $89,722 PDF

    Additional Filings (PDFs)


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