9to5, National Association of Working Women




Tax ID:


Tax-Exempt Status:


Budget (2021):

Revenue: $6,060,763
Expenses: $4,007,111
Assets: $6,393,972



Co-President and CEO:

Ashley Panelli

Mica Whitfield



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9to5 (also known as 9to5, National Association of Working Women) is a non-profit 501(c)(3) organization founded in 1973 in Boston during the rise of the Women’s Movement by Karen Nussbaum (now head of AFL-CIO affiliate Working America) and Ellen Cassedy.1 The organization focuses its efforts on advocacy towards voters as well as petitioning politicians in support of the labor-union agenda of employer mandates, with a special focus on mandates that affect women.2


In the early 1970s, left-wing activist Karen Nussbaum founded 9to5 to advocate for the labor agenda to and on behalf of women. In 1975, the organization joined with the Service Employees International Union (SEIU), forming SEIU Local 925 and later the SEIU District 925. Nussbaum served as executive director of 9to5 and president of the 925 unions until 1993, when she accepted the position of director of the Women’s Bureau of the Department of Labor under President Bill Clinton.3

The organization allegedly inspired the 1980 Jane Fonda film “9to5” and the song written for the movie. 4

Organization Overview

9to5 is a membership organization of working women. It has expanded from its initial Boston focus and membership into a national organization. It currently has chapters in just five cities: Atlanta, Denver, Los Angeles, Milwaukee, and San Jose; however, the majority of its membership is contained in its “National Action Network,” which claims members and smaller local chapters in every state. 5


9to5 receives the majority of its funding from contributions, though a small fraction (around 1%) derives from its offered programming and services. 6 Some major national donors, as listed on their website 7, include:


American Association of University Women

Caring Across Generations

Center for Community Change

Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP)

Coalition on Human Needs

Family Values at Work

Half in Ten Campaign

Human Rights Watch

Institute for Women’s Policy Research

Interfaith Worker Justice

Jobs With Justice

Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights Under Law

Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights


National Committee on Pay Equity

National Council for Research on Women

National Domestic Workers Alliance

National Employment Law Project

National Gay & Lesbian Task Force

National Partnership for Women and Families

National Women’s Law Center

Opportunity Agenda

OUR Walmart

Restaurant Opportunities Centers (ROC) United

SAVE for All

Too Small to Fail

Women for Economic Justice

Work Family Strategy Council

Working America



Karen Nussbaum, who co-founded the organization, had been involved in political activism since college. She joined an organization called the Black Panther Support Committee in the late 1960s, participated in the anti-Vietnam War movement and rallies, and participated in a pro-Fidel Castro “Venceremos Brigade” initiative in 1970, which transported hundreds of young Americans to Cuba to interact with Communist revolutionaries.8 In a 2003 interview, Nussbaum described her visit to Cuba in 1970 as “thrilling,” describing it as “a society that was combating racism, that had provided free health and educational care to every person in society, that had reduced income inequality more dramatically than any place else on earth.”9

Nussbaum then moved to Boston, continuing her work with the antiwar movement and working as a clerical worker at Harvard. During this time, she, along with some friends, founded 9to5 as an organization of female clerical workers in the Boston area. Nussbaum served as director until 1993, when she left to serve as director of the Women’s Bureau in the Department of Labor during the Clinton Administration’s first term. She is now executive director of Working America, an affiliate of the AFL-CIO focusing on recruiting non-unionized workers, which she co-founded in 2003.

Ellen Cassedy co-founded 9to5 with Nussbaum. She co-wrote a book with Nussbaum on labor issues titled 9to5: The Working Woman’s Guide to Office Survival. 10

Co-President and CEO

Ashley Panelli is the co-president and CEO of 9to5 as well as 9to5 Action Fund. She previously worked for the Denver chapter of the Democratic Socialists of America (DSA) as well as the Colorado FAMLI Coalition and the Colorado Families First Coalition. Panelli sits on the board of Family Values at Work, the Women and Girls of Color Fund Advisory Council and the State Priorities Partnership with the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. 11

Mica Whitfield is the co-president and CEO of 9to5. She previously served as the organization’s Georga State Director. Prior to this, she was the Vice President and Advocacy Chair for the Georgia Chapter of Postpartum Support International. 12


  1. “9to5”in “Stir It Up: Lessons in Community Organizing and Advocacy.” p. 31. Charon Press Series 2003. Accessed August 17, 2017..
  2. “9to5’s Mission & Values.” 9to5. 2017. Accessed August 17, 2017.
  3. “Karen Nussbaum.” Discover the Networks. 2015. Accessed July 19, 2017.
  4. “’9 to 5’ Turns 35, and It’s Still Radical Today.” ­Rolling Stone. 2015. Accessed July 18, 2017.
  5. “National Action Network.” 9to5. 2017. Accessed August 17, 2017.
  6. “9to5 National Association of Working Women.” GuideStar. 2010. Accessed July 18, 2017.
  7. “Allies & Supporters.” 9to5. 2017. Accessed July 18, 2017.
  8. “Karen Nussbaum.” Discover the Networks. 2015. Accessed July 19, 2017.
  9. “Voices of Feminism Oral History Project: Interview with Karen Nussbaum.” Smith College. 2003. Accessed July 19, 2017.
  10. “9to5: The Working Woman’s Guide to Office Survival.” Penguin Books. 1983. Accessed August 17, 2017.
  11. “Staff.” 9to5, Accessed February 26, 2024.
  12. “Staff” 9to5, Accessed February 26, 2024.
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Nonprofit Information

  • Accounting Period: September - August
  • Tax Exemption Received: June 1, 1978

  • Available Filings

    Period Form Type Total revenue Total functional expenses Total assets (EOY) Total liabilities (EOY) Unrelated business income? Total contributions Program service revenue Investment income Comp. of current officers, directors, etc. Form 990
    2021 Sep Form 990 $6,060,763 $4,007,111 $6,393,972 $266,317 N $5,665,189 $372,645 $18,107 $576,227
    2020 Sep Form 990 $4,957,666 $3,244,259 $4,692,386 $618,383 N $4,687,781 $173,218 $17,466 $443,574
    2018 Sep Form 990 $1,964,112 $2,141,442 $1,753,830 $79,761 Y $1,881,184 $8,167 $8,546 $348,381 PDF
    2017 Sep Form 990 $2,661,417 $1,968,895 $1,917,398 $65,999 N $2,589,379 $13,212 $2,014 $416,842 PDF
    2016 Sep Form 990 $1,529,881 $1,721,386 $1,212,946 $54,069 N $1,452,912 $16,771 $1,550 $472,616 PDF
    2015 Sep Form 990 $2,066,293 $1,716,575 $1,403,009 $52,627 N $1,999,023 $17,636 $510 $416,568 PDF
    2014 Sep Form 990 $1,498,523 $1,573,824 $1,037,816 $37,152 N $1,435,287 $15,777 $580 $357,020 PDF
    2013 Sep Form 990 $1,395,452 $1,554,503 $1,111,977 $36,012 N $1,283,888 $17,422 $965 $348,463 PDF
    2012 Sep Form 990 $1,672,524 $1,640,353 $1,256,056 $21,040 N $1,619,715 $16,815 $757 $244,086 PDF
    2011 Sep Form 990 $2,012,175 $1,725,535 $1,222,356 $19,553 N $1,988,823 $13,841 $3,140 $181,972 PDF

    Additional Filings (PDFs)

    9to5, National Association of Working Women

    207 E BUFFALO ST STE 211
    MILWAUKEE, WI 53202-5758