Person

Ralph Nader

Born:

February 27, 1934

Ralph Nader is an American environmentalist and consumers’-interests activist and left-of-center politician. Though he affiliates with neither major party, his views are generally considered left-wing and he focuses on promoting anti-free-market regulations.

Nader became a household name in the 1960s with Unsafe at Any Speed, his investigative report on the safety record of the American automotive industry which heavily influenced the passage of federal safety regulations. He is best known for his role in the 2000 presidential election in which he ran as the candidate for the Green Party and earned over 2% of the popular vote. Nader is often blamed for acting as a “spoiler” by siphoning key votes away from Democratic presidential candidate Al Gore, supposedly thereby electing Republican candidate George W. Bush. Whether Nader’s campaign cost Gore the election, and whether Nader intended to do so, have been hotly contested.

Early Life and Education

Ralph Nader was born in Winsted, Connecticut, in 1934 to two Lebanese immigrants. His father worked in a textile mill and eventually opened a restaurant in which Ralph worked. Nader attended the private Gilbert School in Winchester, Connecticut. [1][2]

In 1951, Nader began attending Princeton University. He was offered scholarships by the school, but his father forced him to turn them down because the family could afford tuition. In 1955, Nader graduated magna cum laude from the Woodrow Wilson School of International Affairs. [3][4]

Nader then began attending Harvard Law School. He frequently missed classes and disappeared from campus to hitchhike around the United States and pursue pet projects, including researching Native American activism. He wrote about these experiences in the Harvard Law Review. [5] In 1956, Nader began studying automotive safety. [6]

Early Career

In 1958, Nader graduated from Harvard Law School and joined the U.S. Army. After only a year, he left military service and became a freelance writer. Nader traveled throughout Europe, the Eastern Bloc, Central America, and South America, and managed to interview Cuban dictator Fidel Castro and Chilean socialist leader Salvador Allende. [7][8]

In 1959, Nader was admitted to the bar in Connecticut and began practicing law. In 1961, he began teaching history and law at the University of Hartford. In 1963, Nader moved to Washington, D.C., to work as a consultant to then-Assistant Secretary of Labor Daniel Patrick Moynihan in President John Kennedy’s administration. [9]

 

Unsafe at Any Speed

Publication

In 1964, Nader published an article on automotive safety in The New Republic and expanded his research into a manuscript. [10] Nader then received a $5,000 advance from a New York-based publishing house on the manuscript. After leaving the only copy in a taxi, he rewrote it from scratch. [11][12]

The following year, Nader published Unsafe at Any Speed: The Designed-In Dangers of the American Automobile. The book examined major American car companies and presented journalistic findings which suggested that they were quietly resisting the introduction of safety measures to save on costs. [13][14] The book opens with: “For over half a century the automobile has brought death, injury and the most inestimable sorrow and deprivation to millions of people.” [15]

Influence

Unsafe at Any Speed was a surprise commercial success. General Motors faced considerable backlash and launched a campaign to discredit Nader, which included tapping his phone and hiring prostitutes to solicit him. [16] At the time, Nader was an unpaid consultant to U.S. Senator Abraham Ribicoff (D-CT) and reported to him that he believed he was being followed. Senator Ribicoff called an inquiry into the matter and forced General Motors CEO James Roche to admit under oath that the company had hired private investigators to follow Nader and find incriminating information on him. Nader sued General Motors and won $425,000 in a settlement. He used the funds to start the Center for Study of Responsive Law. [17]

The Congressional hearing and Nader’s testimony brought more attention to his work and made Unsafe at Any Speed a best seller. In 1965, Congress passed the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, the first federal law to mandate motor vehicle safety regulations. Nader was personally attributed in the bill’s testimonies. The bill created the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. [18]

Criticisms

Unsafe at Any Speed has been criticized on factual and conceptual grounds. Libertarian economist Thomas Sowell has argued that Nader does not understand the trade-offs between safety and affordability inherent in car manufacturing. Sowell also criticizes Nader for using literary flair and inflammatory language to persuade the audience over factual claims. For instance, one of Nader’s primary targets in the book was the Chevy Corvair, which he claimed had a fundamental defect due to its rear-engine which caused it to roll over, and that Chevy purposefully avoided fixing the issue to save costs. Sowell acknowledged Nader’s claim, but pointed out that the risk of flipping in rear-engine vehicles is offset by being less prone to other types of accidents compared to front-engine vehicles, especially due to its more precise steering. As a result of Unsafe at Any Speed, the Corvair was taken off the market; years later, government testing would find it no less safe than comparably-sized vehicles. [19]

Other sources have said that the Corvair’s safety problems were only present in early models, but by 1964 (the year Nader published the book), its safety issues had been solved. [20]

Activism

In the late 1960s, Nader capitalized on the success of Unsafe at Any Speed by branching out into broader consumer advocacy. He soon became known as a public interest crusader and wielded considerable influence politically and with the public. [21]

Nader’s Raiders

Nader used his popularity to recruit activists from Harvard University, Yale University, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, who would become known as “Nader’s Raiders.” Nader and the group first targeted the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC), and launched a series of public inquiries and interviews which at one point got a Raider thrown out of FTC commissioner Paul Rand Dixon’s office. [22]

In 1969, Nader published a report on the FTC which accused the agency of systematically failing to protect consumers due to “apathy” and a lack of enforcement mechanisms. Commissioner Dixon called the report a “hysterical anti-business diatribe and a scurrilous, untruthful attack.” Nader’s ally in Congress, U.S. Senator Abraham Ribicoff (D-CT), used the report to garner support for his proposed Office of Consumer Affairs, the precursor to the Bureau of Consumer Affairs within the FTC. In response to the report, President Richard Nixon asked the American Bar Association to investigate the FTC, and its own report confirmed Nader’s findings. [23]

In the early 1970s, Nader and a growing staff of Raiders released more reports. In 1971, they released a report on the U.S. Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Reclamation, and advocated for abolishing the office for having outlived its usefulness in building infrastructure in the former Western frontier. In the same year, Nader began releasing reports on private companies and industries, including the alleged undue influence of DuPont on the Delaware government, abuses in nursing homes, and the working conditions of sanitation workers. Nader and the Raiders would produce more investigative reports on government agencies and private companies over the following years. [24]

Public Citizen

In 1971, Nader founded Public Citizen, a 501(c)(4), to organize his activism. Its sister-group, the Public Citizen Foundation, lobbies for increased regulations and anti-business interests. In 2001, Public Citizen distanced itself from Nader due to the controversy over the 2000 presidential election. [25]

Nader and Public Citizen claim credit for supporting the passage of many influential environmentalist and corporate-governance bills, including the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Consumer Product Safety Act, Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Freedom of Information Act, Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA), and the Whistleblower Protection Act. [26]

U.S. Public Interest Research Group

In 1971, based on his experiences with Nader’s Raiders, Nader wrote Action for a Change: A Student’s Manual for Public Research Organizing, which laid out a broad plan for student activists to pool their resources to achieve common goals. In 1973, lawyer Donald Ross founded the U.S. Public Interest Research Group (US-PIRG) based on Nader’s vision. The organization spread both across the country and internationally. [27]

Critical Mass Energy Project

In 1974, Nader’s Public Citizen founded the Critical Mass Energy Project, a national anti-nuclear umbrella group. The organization lobbied against attempts to deregulate the nuclear industry and served as a watchdog of energy companies with nuclear assets. [28]

Presidential Campaigns

Ralph Nader has run for president five times under numerous parties and with varying goals and levels of effort. [29]

Nader first considered running for president in the 1972 election cycle. The New Party, a progressive off-shoot of the Democratic Party, offered Nader the candidacy for president. Influential left-wing pundit Gore Vidal wrote an op-ed endorsing Nader for president. Nader declined, and the New Party nominated Benjamin Spock, the People’s Party’s candidate. Democratic presidential candidate George McGovern asked Nader to be his running mate, but Nader declined. [30] Nader would still receive one vote for vice president in the Democratic Party’s national convention from a rogue delegate. [31]

In 1980, the progressive Citizen’s Party asked Nader to run for president. He declined and stated, “I will never run for president.” [32]

In 1992, Nader was a write-in candidate in the Democratic and Republican presidential primaries in New Hampshire, and in the Democratic primary in Massachusetts. [33]

In 1996, Nader was haphazardly drafted by the Green Party to run for president. The national Green Party did not nominate him, but numerous state-level parties did, which caused him to have different running mates in a variety of states. Nader refused to raise more than $5,000 for his campaign, but still outperformed expectations for the Green Party. [34]

2000

In 2000, Nader ran for president as a candidate for the Green Party. Unlike in 1992 and 1996, Nader actively campaigned for votes around the country. He campaigned on campaign finance reform, combatting corporate influence, and breaking what he portrayed as a collusion between the two major parties on most policy issues. Nader would earn 2,882,955 votes, or 2.74% of the popular vote. [35]

Nader’s candidacy was controversial from the start due to fears that he would “spoil” the race by pulling left-leaning votes away from the Democratic candidate,  then-Vice President Al Gore, to the benefit of Republican candidate George W. Bush, then-governor of Texas. A group of Nader supporters calling themselves “Nader’s Raiders for Gore” wrote an open letter to Nader asking him not to run. The letter cited polls which showed Nader with support between 3-8% in nine states, which was well above the gap between Gore and Bush. [36]

During the election, the Republican Leadership Council ran pro-Nader ads in Wisconsin, Oregon, and Washington in an attempt to siphon votes away from Gore. [37]

The 2000 presidential election was arguably the closest in American history. Bush won the election with 271 electoral votes due to a 537-vote win in Florida that was hotly contested by lawsuits and recounts. With over 90,000 votes cast for Nader in Florida alone, many believe that he cost Gore the election. By Nader’s own polling, if he hadn’t run, 25% of his supporters would have voted for Bush, 38% for Gore, and the rest would not have voted at all. If true, then if Nader hadn’t run, Gore would have won at least Florida and New Hampshire, either of which would have given him an Electoral College victory over Bush. [38]

Both Nader supporters and critics have challenged this claim. The libertarian magazine Reason has argued that the assumption that left-leaning independent voters would either support Gore or Nader is flawed. In Florida, 24,000 registered Democrats voted for Nader, but 308,000 Democrats voted for Bush, as did 191,000 self-identified “liberals.” Future Green Party candidate Jill Stein and others have argued that Gore’s loss should be blamed on the failure of the post-election lawsuits which upheld tens of thousands of ballots in which voters may have accidentally voted for the wrong candidate due to the infamous “butterfly ballot” design. Both Reason and Stein claim that Nader has been scapegoated for Gore’s loss to discourage third party challenges to the Republican and Democratic Parties. [39][40]

Nader’s motives for running have been the subject of extensive speculation. He publicly ran to seek reform in the electoral process, and according to Harvard University professor Barry Burden, Nader’s objective was getting 5% of the popular vote to guarantee federal funding for the Green Party in future presidential elections. [41] But according to sociologist Harry Levine, Nader’s true objectives were to “punish” the Democratic Party establishment for abandoning his activist goals, and to gain influence in the Party by setting a precedent for defection. [42] During the final months of the election, Nader’s advisors urged him to campaign in safe Democratic states to bolster his support for the best shot of hitting 5%, but Nader chose to campaign in swing states (including Florida) despite the fierce competition over votes and the potential detriment to Gore. [43]

Later Presidential Elections

In 2004, Nader announced that he would not run for president as a candidate of the Green Party. Nader met with Democratic presidential candidate John Kerry (D-MA) at his behest, and Kerry asked how he could earn Nader’s support. Nader presented Kerry with 20 pages of campaign issues and asked Kerry to highlight three of them in his campaign. Kerry was noncommittal, so Nader ran for president as an Independent. [44] Many Democrats urged Nader not to run to prevent another spoiler. In May 2009, Nader would publicly claim that Democratic National Committee chairman and future Virginia Governor Terry McAuliffe (D) attempted to bribe Nader to get him to stop campaigning in swing states. Nader would ultimately earn under 450,000 votes, or 0.38% of the electorate. [45]

In 2008, Nader ran for president again as an independent. He earned 738,475 votes, or 0.56% of the electorate. [46]

Views on Democrats and Republicans

Though Ralph Nader’s politics more closely align with Democrats than the Republicans, he has been antagonistic toward the Democratic Party. He has repeatedly claimed that the Democratic Party has betrayed its left-progressive roots, starting with an increased drive for corporate donations in 1979. This supposedly undermined the Party’s message and led to a steady decline in electoral strength which was compounded by Democratic strategy makers ceding Texas and many Western states to the Republicans, which permanently cut Democratic strength in the U.S. Senate. He also blames the Democrats for forging a general consensus with the Republicans on foreign policy rather than pursuing less-interventionist policies. [47][48]

Nader has been shunned by Democrats since 2000 due to accusations of spoiling the election for Democratic presidential candidate Al Gore. His rhetoric against the Party and its leading figures has escalated since then. During the 2016 presidential election, Nader condemned Hillary Clinton (D-NY) for winning the Democratic nomination “by dictatorship” in reference to accusations that she colluded with party officials to marginalize Senator Bernie Sanders (D-VT). [49] In 2020, Nader Tweeted about Clinton, referring to her as “the butcher of Libya and neighbors, backer of the criminal Iraq war-slaughter, and lucrative toady of Wall Street.” [50]

Nader commends the Republican Party for being more strategically sound and focusing on policy, but strongly opposes their conservative political ideology. He is especially condemnatory of the modern Republican Party which in 2017 he called “radically extremist, cruel, vicious, Wall Street,” and “militarist.” [51] Nader was initially moderately positive on President Donald Trump during his 2016 presidential campaign for questioning international trade agreements and “challenging Wall Street.” [52] But during his presidency, Nader was an outspoken critic of President Trump, calling him a purveyor of “corporate state fascism.” [53]

References

  1. Bowen, Nancy. “Ralph Nader: Man With A Mission.” 21st Century. April 1, 2002. Accessed June 17, 2021. https://books.google.com/books?id=g88RWOBJz1UC&pg=PA25#v=onepage&q&f=false. ^
  2. “Ralph Nader.” Biography. Accessed June 17, 2021. https://www.biography.com/activist/ralph-nader. ^
  3. Bowen, Nancy. “Ralph Nader: Man With A Mission.” 21st Century. April 1, 2002. Accessed June 17, 2021. https://books.google.com/books?id=g88RWOBJz1UC&pg=PA25#v=onepage&q&f=false. ^
  4. “Ralph Nader.” Biography. Accessed June 17, 2021. https://www.biography.com/activist/ralph-nader. ^
  5. Green, Mark. “How Ralph Nader Changed America.” The Nation. December 21-28, 2015. Accessed June 17, 2021. https://www.thenation.com/article/archive/how-ralph-nader-changed-america/, ^
  6. Jensen, Christopher. “50 Years Ago, ‘Unsafe at Any Speed’ Shook the Auto World.” New York Times. November 26, 2016. Accessed June 17, 2021. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/27/automobiles/50-years-ago-unsafe-at-any-speed-shook-the-auto-world.html. ^
  7. Green, Mark. “How Ralph Nader Changed America.” The Nation. December 21-28, 2015. Accessed June 17, 2021. https://www.thenation.com/article/archive/how-ralph-nader-changed-america/, ^
  8. “Ralph Nader.” Biography. Accessed June 17, 2021. https://www.biography.com/activist/ralph-nader. ^
  9. “Ralph Nader.” Biography. Accessed June 17, 2021. https://www.biography.com/activist/ralph-nader. ^
  10. Jensen, Christopher. “50 Years Ago, ‘Unsafe at Any Speed’ Shook the Auto World.” New York Times. November 26, 2016. Accessed June 17, 2021. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/27/automobiles/50-years-ago-unsafe-at-any-speed-shook-the-auto-world.html. ^
  11. Green, Mark. “How Ralph Nader Changed America.” The Nation. December 21-28, 2015. Accessed June 17, 2021. https://www.thenation.com/article/archive/how-ralph-nader-changed-america/, ^
  12. “Ralph Nader.” Biography. Accessed June 17, 2021. https://www.biography.com/activist/ralph-nader. ^
  13. Green, Mark. “How Ralph Nader Changed America.” The Nation. December 21-28, 2015. Accessed June 17, 2021. https://www.thenation.com/article/archive/how-ralph-nader-changed-america/, ^
  14. “Ralph Nader.” Biography. Accessed June 17, 2021. https://www.biography.com/activist/ralph-nader. ^
  15. Jensen, Christopher. “50 Years Ago, ‘Unsafe at Any Speed’ Shook the Auto World.” New York Times. November 26, 2016. Accessed June 17, 2021. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/27/automobiles/50-years-ago-unsafe-at-any-speed-shook-the-auto-world.html. ^
  16. Longhine, Laura. “Ralph Nader’s museum of tort law will include relics from famous lawsuits – if it ever gets built.” Legal Affairs. November/December 2005. Accessed June 17, 2021. https://www.legalaffairs.org/issues/November-December-2005/scene_longhine_novdec05.msp. ^
  17. Green, Mark. “How Ralph Nader Changed America.” The Nation. December 21-28, 2015. Accessed June 17, 2021. https://www.thenation.com/article/archive/how-ralph-nader-changed-america/, ^
  18. Green, Mark. “How Ralph Nader Changed America.” The Nation. December 21-28, 2015. Accessed June 17, 2021. https://www.thenation.com/article/archive/how-ralph-nader-changed-america/, ^
  19. Sowell, Thomas. “Ralph Nader’s Glittering Record.” Capitalism Magazine. March 3, 2004. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://www.capitalismmagazine.com/2004/03/ralph-naders-glittering-record/. ^
  20. “Was the Corvair As Bad As Ralph Nader Claimed.” Gold Eagle. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://www.goldeagle.com/tips-tools/was-the-corvair-as-bad-as-ralph-nader-claimed/. ^
  21. “”Nader’s Raiders.”” The Pop History Dig. March 31, 2013. Updated April 2, 2020. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://www.pophistorydig.com/topics/naders-raiders-1968-1974/. ^
  22. “”Nader’s Raiders.”” The Pop History Dig. March 31, 2013. Updated April 2, 2020. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://www.pophistorydig.com/topics/naders-raiders-1968-1974/. ^
  23. “”Nader’s Raiders.”” The Pop History Dig. March 31, 2013. Updated April 2, 2020. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://www.pophistorydig.com/topics/naders-raiders-1968-1974/. ^
  24. “”Nader’s Raiders.”” The Pop History Dig. March 31, 2013. Updated April 2, 2020. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://www.pophistorydig.com/topics/naders-raiders-1968-1974/. ^
  25. Margolis, Jon. “Nader Unrepentant.” Mother Jones. July/August 2001. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2001/07/nader-unrepentant/. ^
  26. “Ralph Nader’s Achievements.” Vote Nader. Accessed June 18, 2021. http://www.votenader.org/about/achievements/. ^
  27. Nader, Ralph. “Action for a change: A student’s manual for public interest organizing.” Amazon. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://www.amazon.com/Action-change-students-interest-organizing/dp/0670103195. ^
  28. “Critical Mass Energy Project.” Green Peace USA. Accessed June 18, 2021. ^
  29. Levine, Harry G. “Ralph Nader as Made Bomber.” Here Instead. March 2004. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://web.archive.org/web/20150211121603/http://hereinstead.com/Ralph-Nader-As-Mad-Bomber.html. ^
  30. Levine, Harry G. “Ralph Nader as Made Bomber.” Here Instead. March 2004. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://web.archive.org/web/20150211121603/http://hereinstead.com/Ralph-Nader-As-Mad-Bomber.html. ^
  31. Vidal, Gore. “The Best Man, 1972.” May 13, 2008. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://www.esquire.com/news-politics/a4627/best-man-1972/. ^
  32. Weiss, Stanley. “The Shocking Campaign Ad That Put a Third-Party Candidate on the Political Map.” Time. December 2, 2016. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://time.com/4584919/barry-commoner-shocking-ad/. ^
  33. “1992 Presidential Primary.” SOS. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://web.archive.org/web/20090716000840/http://www.sos.nh.gov/presprim1992/index.htm. ^
  34. Gaard, Greta. “Ecological Politics: Ecofeminists and the Greens.” Temple University Press. May 11, 1998. Accessed June 18, 2021. ^
  35. “2000 Presidential Election.” 270 to Win. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://www.270towin.com/2000_Election/. ^
  36. “Nader’s Raiders for Gore.” Nader’s Raiders for Gore. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://web.archive.org/web/20010415013029/http://www.nadersraidersforgore.com/printversion.htm. ^
  37. Meckler, Laura. “GOP Group to Pro-Nader TV Ads.” AP News. October 27, 2000. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://apnews.com/article/dc0f07b949995060afe6241eccc8fb0f. ^
  38. Nader, Ralph. “Dear Conservatives Upset with the Policies of the Bush Administration.” Vote Nader. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://web.archive.org/web/20040702033113/http://www.votenader.org/why_ralph/index.php?cid=14. ^
  39. Scher, Bill. “Nader Elected Bush: Why We Shouldn’t Forget.” RealClear Politics. May 31, 2016. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2016/05/31/nader_elected_bush_why_we_shouldnt_forget_130715.html. ^
  40. Fisher, Anthony. “No, Ralph Nader Did Not Hand the 2000 Presidential Election to George W. Bush.” Reason. August 3, 2016. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://reason.com/2016/08/03/ralph-nader-did-not-hand-2000-election/. ^
  41. Burden, Barry C. “Ralph Nader’s Campaign Strategy In the 2000 U.S. Presidential Election.” Harvard University. 2005. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://web.archive.org/web/20110713031620/https://mywebspace.wisc.edu/bcburden/web/burden2005.pdf. ^
  42. Levine, Harry G. “Ralph Nader as Made Bomber.” Here Instead. March 2004. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://web.archive.org/web/20150211121603/http://hereinstead.com/Ralph-Nader-As-Mad-Bomber.html. ^
  43. Chait, Jonathan. “Books in Review:.” Prospect. October 15, 2002. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://prospect.org/features/books-review-d3/. ^
  44. Balz, Dan; V, Ken; eHei. “Kerry, Nader Meet and Go Separate Ways.” Washington Post. May 20, 2004. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/2004/05/20/kerry-nader-meet-and-go-separate-ways/0ed8fdbc-60dc-40a9-b76a-1a977c4df699/. ^
  45. Kumar, Antia. “McAuliffe Offered Me Money to Alter My 2004 Campaign, Nader Says.” Washington Post. May 29, 2009. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/05/28/AR2009052803823.html. ^
  46. “2008 Presidential Popular Vote Summary.” Federal Elections Commission. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://www.fec.gov/resources/cms-content/documents/tables2008.pdf. ^
  47. Levine, Harry G. “Ralph Nader as Made Bomber.” Here Instead. March 2004. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://web.archive.org/web/20150211121603/http://hereinstead.com/Ralph-Nader-As-Mad-Bomber.html. ^
  48. Schwarz, Jon. “Ralph Nader: The Democrats Are Unable To Defend the U.S. From The “Most Vicious” Republican Party In History.” Intercept. June 25, 2017. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://theintercept.com/2017/06/25/ralph-nader-the-democrats-are-unable-to-defend-the-u-s-from-the-most-vicious-republican-party-in-history/. ^
  49. Catanese, David. “Ralph Nader: Trump’s Done Some Good, Clinton’s Winning By Dictatorship.” US News. May 13, 2016. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2016-05-13/ralph-nader-donald-trump-has-done-some-good-hillary-clintons-winning-by-dictatorship. ^
  50. “Ralph Nader.” Twitter. January 24, 2020. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://twitter.com/ralphnader/status/1220754858330009600?lang=en. ^
  51. Schwarz, Jon. “Ralph Nader: The Democrats Are Unable To Defend the U.S. From The “Most Vicious” Republican Party In History.” Intercept. June 25, 2017. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://theintercept.com/2017/06/25/ralph-nader-the-democrats-are-unable-to-defend-the-u-s-from-the-most-vicious-republican-party-in-history/. ^
  52. Catanese, David. “Ralph Nader: Trump’s Done Some Good, Clinton’s Winning By Dictatorship.” US News. May 13, 2016. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2016-05-13/ralph-nader-donald-trump-has-done-some-good-hillary-clintons-winning-by-dictatorship. ^
  53. DeVega, Chauncey. “Ralph Nader on Trump’s corruption, “corporate state fascism” and why Democrats keep losing.” Yahoo. October 26, 2020. Accessed June 18, 2021. https://www.yahoo.com/lifestyle/ralph-naders-election-wisdom-swing-110001011.html. ^
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