Tax ID:


Tax-Exempt Status:


Budget (2020):

Revenue: $4,138,382
Expenses: $3,318,486
Assets: $2,919,025


1992 in Cincinnati, OH


Citizens for Proportional Representation (1992)
Center for Voting and Democracy (1994 – 2004)

President and CEO:

Rob Richie

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FairVote is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization located in Takoma Park, Maryland that promotes and is a principal activist for ranked-choice voting (RCV), universal voter registration, and abolition of the Electoral College. FairVote was founded in 1992 in Cincinnati, Ohio by a group of activists, educators, and former government officials, and initially operated under the name Citizens for Proportional Representation.

FairVote maintains focus on RCV and proportional representation in local municipalities; a number of municipalities and the state of Maine have adopted RCV systems. FairVote has been involved in numerous court battles arising out of or relating to its initiatives. Its current major programs include “Reform 2020” and lobbying for the Fair Representation Act to eliminate the Constitution’s electoral college.


FairVote is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit headquartered in the Washington, D.C. area.1 FairVote was founded in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1992 as Citizens for Proportional Representation by a group of scholars, activists, government bureaucrats, and former elected officials. The initial focus of the group was to advance ranked-choice voting (a voting system under which voters choose candidates by ranking them in order of preference, with an elimination-and-re-allocation process determining the winner rather than by declaring the candidate with the most single-candidate selections the winner) and adopt forms of proportional representation in local elections.

In 1993, with the appointment of former U.S. Representative and independent candidate for President John B. Anderson as executive director, the organization opened an office in Washington, D.C. and became the Center for Voting and Democracy.

In 2004, the organization changed its name to FairVote.2


FairVote advocates for forms of proportional representation, an electoral system in which the number of seats held by a political group or party in a legislative body is determined by the number of popular votes received.3 FairVote has focused on ranked-choice voting, a form of semi-proportional representation in which candidates are ranked by the voters’ preference on their ballots. If no candidate receives a majority of first-preference votes, the candidate with the fewest first-preference votes is eliminated, adding the second-preference votes on the eliminated candidate’s ballots to the totals of other candidates. This process continues until a candidate has a majority.4

FairVote claims credit for the adoption of RCV and other legislation in a number of municipalities and regions. In 2002, San Francisco became the first city to adopt RCV for certain city-wide elections.5 In 2006, Oakland and Minneapolis passed RCV for city-wide elections.6

In 2005 and 2006, Arkansas and South Carolina, respectively, instituted RCV for military and overseas voters.7 In 2016, Maine adopted RCV statewide by referendum, in part due to millions of dollars of largely out-of-state money.8 FairVote spent $375,000 to support the ballot measure, which passed 52-48, despite an opinion offered by Maine’s Attorney General that RCV is unconstitutional.9 (RCV was used in the 2018 midterm elections in the state.)

In 2007, Maryland became the first state to pass its National Popular Vote plan for electing the U.S. president.10 FairVote is thought to be the incubator and main strategist for this compact coalition among states. FairVote’s Richie and Andersen were early supporters of the initiative and contributors to its manifesto Every Vote Equal.11

The NPV Initiative is an agreement among states that would accomplish popular election of the president and vice president—and thereby elimination of the unique American electoral college system—without a constitutional amendment. The compact would only have a chance to be effective if states controlling a majority of the Electoral College votes (270) join the initiative. As of November 2022, 15 states and the District of Columbia (totaling 195 electoral votes) have joined. 12

FairVote has partnered with Stanford’s Democracy Fund to facilitate understanding of “applying ranked choice voting to Congressional elections.” Professors from Harvard, Penn State, Stanford, and others continue to work with FairVote to facilitate the electorate’s understanding of RCV.13


In 2006, FairVote filed an amicus curiae brief on behalf of individuals and organizations suing the City of Modesto, California, claiming the Latino vote was not proportionally represented in local city council elections, which were conducted by an at-large plurality election. While the trial court ruled in favor of Modesto, the California Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals sided with FairVote and the plaintiffs, reversing the lower court’s decision.

In 2009, FairVote Minnesota, an independent ally of FairVote, was an intervenor-respondent in the Minnesota Supreme Court case Minnesota Voters Alliance, et al. v. City of Minneapolis, et al. This case dealt with the constitutionality of ranked-choice voting, which had  been adopted in 2006 by the city of Minneapolis for its municipal elections.14 Minnesota Voters Alliance, a nonprofit organization attempted to persuade the court that the RCV method “violates their right to vote, to associate for political purposes, and to equal protection under both the US and State of Minnesota Constitutions.” FairVote Minnesota argued that the appellants bore a “heavy burden of persuasion” with a challenge based on the grounds that instant run-off (RCV) was unconstitutional. The Minnesota Supreme Court affirmed the lower court’s ruling that RCV did not infringe upon the appellant’s constitutional rights.15

Current Initiatives

FairVote released its “Reform 2020” plan that included four main strategic objectives: Fair Representation Voting, Constitutional Right to Vote, Ranked Choice Voting, and National Popular Vote. 16 As of August 2023 the updated plan on their website calls for implementing ranked choice voting (RCV), “for all federal elections and the proportional form of RCV for U.S. House elections,” as outlined by the Fair Representation Act, by 2030. 17

Fair Representation Act

FairVote’s main resources towards fair representation are dedicated to lobbying for the The Fair Representation Act (H.R. 3057), initially introduced by Representative Don Beyer (D-VA) in 2017. This bill would change House elections from “winner take all” to ranked choice voting, fundamentally transforming how Americans elect their representatives to Congress. The bill would primarily mandate that states with six or more House members create multi-member districts (between three and five members per district). The overall size of Congress under this bill would remain the same. The bill would further require each state to redistrict by independent commissions.18

The National Popular Vote seeks to eliminate the Electoral College in national elections. Rob Richie, as executive director of FairVote, co-authored Every Vote Equal, a book that includes a forward from John B. Anderson.19 FairVote advertises the fact that they have been the research arm of the national popular vote movement since 2005.20


The President & CEO of FairVote is Rob Richie. He has been with the organization since its founding in 1992.


Major funding to FairVote has come from a number of prominent left-of-center private grantmaking foundations and public charities, including the Laura and John Arnold Foundation, Omidyar Network Fund, Open Society Foundations, Jennifer and Jonathan Allan Soros Foundation, Democracy Fund, Tides Foundation, William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, Joyce Foundation, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, Public Welfare Foundation, Soros Fund Charitable Foundation, Carnegie Corporation of  New York, Rockefeller Brothers Fund, and Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation.


  1. FairVote. “Our Story,” Accessed December 12, 2018,
  2. Ballotpedia. “FairVote,” Accessed December 22, 2018,
  3. Merriam-Webster. “Proportional Representation,” Accessed December 14, 2018,
  4. Merriam-Webster. “Proportional Representation,” Accessed December 14, 2018,
  5. FairVote. “Where Instant Runoff Voting Is Used”. Accessed on December 13, 2018,
  6. Winger, Richard, “Big Gains for Instant-Runoff Voting in Vermont, South Carolina, and Alabama,” Ballot Access News, April 1, 2006, Accessed
  7. Winger, Richard, “IRV Bills Move Ahead,” Ballot Access News, April 5, 2005, Accessed December 15, 2018,
  8. Greenblatt, Alan, “Maine Becomes First State to Adopt a Whole New Way of Voting,” Governing, Accessed December 16, 2018,
  9. Maine First Media. “Exposing Radical Left’s Out-of-State Effort to Steal Maine Elections,” January 8, 2018, Accessed December 23, 2018,
  10. Richie, Rob, “The Nonpartisan Case for National Popular Vote: Al Gore, not GOP Platform, Gets It Right,” The Huffington Post.
  11. Fadem, Barry; Grueskin, Mark; Koza, John; Mandell, Michael; Richie, Robert; and Zimmerman, Joseph. Every Vote Equal: A State-Based Plan for Electing the President by National Popular Vote.
  12. “National Popular Vote Interstate Compact.” Ballotpedia. Accessed November 22, 2022.
  13. FairVote, “Advisory Committees,” Accessed December 15, 2018,
  14. Minnesota Voters Alliance, et. al v. The City of Minneapolis, et. al., A09-182 (Hennepin County 2009).
  15. Minnesota Voters Alliance, et. al v. The City of Minneapolis, et. al., A09-182 (Hennepin County 2009).
  16. Pennsylvanians For Fair Elections. “Must Read: FairVote Releases 2020 Reform Vision Statement, Goals,” August 8, 2014, Accessed December 15, 2018,
  17. “Our Strategy.” FairVote, Accessed August 14, 2023.
  18. “H.R. 3057: Fair Representation Act,” June 26, 2017, Accessed December 26, 2018 .
  19. Fadem, Barry; Grueskin, Mark; Koza, John; Mandell, Michael; Richie, Robert; and Zimmerman, Joseph. Every Vote Equal: A State-Based Plan for Electing the President by National Popular Vote.
  20. Balletpedia. “FairVote,” Accessed December 23, 2018,

Directors, Employees & Supporters

  1. Amber McReynolds
    Senior Policy Advisors (2022-Present)
  2. Chris Pearson
    Former Director, Presidential Election Reform Program

Child Organizations

  1. RepresentWomen (Non-profit)
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Nonprofit Information

  • Accounting Period: December - November
  • Tax Exemption Received: December 1, 1992

  • Available Filings

    Period Form Type Total revenue Total functional expenses Total assets (EOY) Total liabilities (EOY) Unrelated business income? Total contributions Program service revenue Investment income Comp. of current officers, directors, etc. Form 990
    2020 Dec Form 990 $4,138,382 $3,318,486 $2,919,025 $116,315 N $4,133,529 $0 $51 $330,394
    2019 Dec Form 990 $4,288,226 $2,782,896 $2,007,222 $24,408 N $4,210,414 $13,250 $741 $285,000 PDF
    2018 Dec Form 990 $2,661,864 $3,016,583 $498,352 $20,868 N $2,650,200 $6,534 $318 $141,000 PDF
    2017 Dec Form 990 $3,163,450 $2,776,173 $770,708 $27,447 N $3,142,720 $1,500 $230 $158,500 PDF
    2016 Dec Form 990 $3,213,978 $3,098,556 $413,053 $57,069 N $3,194,902 $9,100 $976 $155,936 PDF
    2015 Dec Form 990 $1,740,020 $1,789,541 $280,167 $39,605 N $1,705,705 $24,275 $218 $141,063 PDF
    2014 Dec Form 990 $1,214,055 $1,074,167 $290,651 $568 N $1,160,520 $34,330 $108 $68,000 PDF
    2013 Dec Form 990 $849,628 $724,843 $227,633 $58,340 N $838,642 $0 $133 $96,750 PDF
    2012 Dec Form 990 $361,178 $349,269 $52,013 $7,505 N $320,325 $25,300 $0 $85,500 PDF
    2011 Dec Form 990 $290,378 $288,979 $51,565 $18,966 N $290,378 $0 $0 $68,000 PDF
    2010 Dec Form 990 $472,926 $464,879 $97,513 $66,313 N $321,762 $151,164 $0 $68,000 PDF

    Additional Filings (PDFs)


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