Person

Bill Ayers

Bill Ayers in Zuccotti Park at occupy Wall Street in March 2012 (link) by Joe Lustri is licensed CC BY-SA 2.0 (link)

For more see: Weather Underground, Students for a Democratic Society, and Bernardine Dohrn

Bill Ayers was an original co-founder and one of the top leaders of the Weather Underground, a radical-left violent extremist group that was active from the late 1960s through the mid-1970s. Prior to this he was a member of Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), a left-wing-turned-revolutionary Communist organization that split apart shortly after founding of Weatherman, the faction that would later evolve into the Underground. Former Weathermen, law enforcement sources and historians of Weatherman have accused Ayers of both encouraging and participating in attempts by the terrorist organization to kill police and U.S. military personnel. While no murders have been conclusively tied to the Weathermen, police officers were injured in at least two bombings. [1] [2] [3]

The FBI was never able to catch and secure prosecution of any major Weatherman participants, including Ayers. Unconstitutional investigation methods used by the Bureau compromised the ability of federal law enforcement to prosecute the Weathermen, leading the U.S. Department of Justice to drop the most serious charges in 1973 and allowing nearly all the Weathermen leaders to come out from hiding and avoid serious felony prosecutions. [4] [5]

Ayers and fellow Weather co-founder Bernardine Dohrn came out of hiding in 1980 and later married. [6] Ayers later became a professor of education at the University of Illinois at Chicago. [7] Following the arrest and conviction of Weather Underground guerillas David Gilbert and Kathy Boudin for murder and armed robbery in 1981, Ayers and Dohrn raised their son, Chesa Boudin; in November 2019, Chesa Boudin was elected the district attorney for San Francisco, California. [8]

In interviews about his past, Ayers has stated that he does not regret setting bombs, he does not consider what he did to be terrorism, and he believes that his conduct wasn’t “extreme enough in fighting racism.” [9] [10] Fellow SDS leader Todd Gitlin disagreed, saying the Weathermen “planned on being terrorists” and “wanted to be terrorists,” but wound up “failed terrorists,” so “let’s give them a medal for not killing anybody besides themselves.” Speaking of Ayers in particular, Gitlin said Ayers was “not a deep thinker” who engaged in “incoherent and reckless acts in the name of nonsensical beliefs.” [11]

Early Life

William Charles “Bill” Ayers was born December 26, 1944. According to a 2001 interview he gave to the Chicago Tribune, he enjoyed a “privileged and pampered” childhood, which included a home in the Glen Ellyn suburb of Chicago. His father, Thomas Ayers, was a top-level executive with Commonwealth Edison Co., eventually rising to become the chairman of the power utility. The family home included a maid. Bill Ayers was once a Boy Scout. [12]

In 1963, after graduating from a private college preparatory school, Ayers enrolled in the University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, the university that both his parents and his older brother attended. [13] He dropped out of the school after one year and joined the Merchant Marine, returning to the University of Michigan in 1965. [14]

Also in 1965, he joined Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), a radical-left national student organization founded in Michigan five years earlier. Soon after joining SDS, Ayers was arrested and jailed for ten days because of his participation in a sit-in at a draft board in Ann Arbor. [15]

After release from jail Ayers began a job as an instructor at the Children’s Community, an alternative school operated out of a church basement in Ann Arbor. A Chicago Tribune profile of Ayers describes it as “part of a larger free-school movement” of the era that was “an extension of the civil rights movement.” These schools did not use report cards or grades, discouraged competition, encouraged cooperation, and allowed instructors and students to address one another on a first-name basis. After working there less than a year, Ayers became the school’s director. [16]

It was at Children’s Community that Ayers met and began a close romantic partnership with Diana Oughton. The pair would later join the 1969 migration from SDS to the Weather Underground. The relationship lasted until Oughton died violently in a March 1970 explosion at a New York City townhouse that was temporarily being used by the Weathermen as a bomb-making facility. [17]

The Weather Underground

Ayers was an original co-founder of Weather Underground (also known as Weatherman or the Weathermen), a radical-left violent extremist group that was active from the late 1960s through the mid-1970s. What became known as the Weather Underground began in 1969 as “Weatherman,” a dominant faction within Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), a left-wing-turned-revolutionary Communist organization that split apart shortly after founding of Weatherman.

Ayers remained one of the most prominent leaders of the organization throughout nearly all its history. Former Weathermen, law enforcement sources, and historians of Weatherman have accused Ayers of both encouraging and participating in attempts by the organization to kill police and U.S. military personnel. [18] [19] [20]

Background

In separate books detailing the history of the Weathermen, professional historian Arthur Eckstein and Vanity Fair journalist Bryan Burrough used law enforcement documents and personal recollections of numerous former Weathermen leaders to demonstrate that through at least May 1970 the organization aggressively promoted efforts to kill police officers and military personnel as part of its goal of sparking the violent overthrow of the U.S. government. While no murders have been conclusively tied to the Weathermen, police officers were injured in at least two Weatherman attacks. As late as 2003, several former Weathermen leaders were the subject of a federal probe into the February 1970 bombing-murder of a San Francisco, California, police officer that occurred two days after a known-Weatherman bombing that injured police in nearby Berkeley. [21] [22] [23]

Eckstein and Burrough both provided strong evidence that two coordinated Weathermen bombing plots set for March 6, 1970, were intended to produce massive fatalities among police in Detroit, Michigan, and among military personnel who would be attending a dance at Fort Dix, New Jersey. Operating on the advice of an FBI informant, local law enforcement in Detroit discovered and disabled two large explosives on the morning of March 6. On the same day, the New York City Weathermen faction, working on bombs intended for Fort Dix, accidentally detonated a device, collapsing the townhouse in which they were working, killing three of them. [24] [25]

In May 1970, on the run from the FBI following the townhouse explosion and discovery of the Detroit bombs, the Weathermen leadership declared the organization would pivot to a strategy of non-lethal bombings. This meeting and a subsequent public declaration in December 1970 promoted a false mythology that the townhouse bombers had been a violent and misguided faction within a larger Weatherman movement that had supposedly always pursued only property damage, and not personal injury. The Weathermen conducted at least 25 bombings between 1969 and 1975, and after May 1970 began phoning ahead warnings that prevented injuries after June 1970. Noteworthy actions included bombings of the U.S. Capitol, the Pentagon, and aiding in the prison escape of LSD guru Timothy Leary. Burrough has written that members of the left-wing National Lawyers Guild provided crucial financial and other assistance to the Weathermen. [26] [27]

Despite a significant investigation, costing an estimated $86.6 million in 2020 dollars, the FBI was never able to catch and secure prosecution of any major Weatherman participants, two of whom appeared on the Bureau’s list of ten “Most Wanted” fugitives. In its desperation, the FBI resorted to unconstitutional methods to pursue the Weathermen, including warrantless break-ins and electronic surveillance of family members of Weathermen leaders. This behavior compromised the ability of federal law enforcement to prosecute the Weathermen, leading the U.S. Department of Justice to drop the most serious charges in 1973 and allowing nearly all the Weathermen leaders to come out from hiding and avoid serious felony prosecutions. [28] [29]

Eckstein and Burrough each wrote that federal law enforcement and the administration of President Richard Nixon severely overestimated the size and threat posed by the Weather Underground, affording the group more attention and lasting historical reputation that it otherwise deserved. Burrough concluded, “In every conceivable way, the young intellectuals who had come together in 1969 to form Weatherman had utterly failed: failed to lead the radical left over the barricades into armed underground struggle; failed to fight or support the black militants they championed; failed to force agencies of the American “ruling class” into a single change more significant than the spread of metal detectors and guard dogs.” [30] [31]

High Living of Leadership

Bryan Burrough wrote that the top Weather leadership, namely Bill Ayers, Bernardine Dohrn, and Jeff Jones, lived in a “modern gated home” in a waterside San Francisco suburb that one visitor described as a “big, glamorous house” that included a “beautiful deck” and “four bedrooms” that were “totally empty.” However, Burrough noted this was not the lifestyle of non-leaders, who “lived on the edge of poverty,” and that the disparity led to resentment. [32]

Cathy Wilkerson, one of the Weather bombers who survived the New York townhouse explosion, said the leadership trio would “go to restaurants we could not afford” and that the disparity in lifestyle between the leadership level and her level “became really gross.” [33]

Likewise, Rick Ayers (Bill’s brother) said he and his compatriots were “dangerously poor” while Bill Ayers, Jones and Dohrn “always ate good food” and “always slept between clean sheets.” According to Rick Ayers, the leadership level “lived off radical lawyers and moneyed friends who told them what they wanted to hear—what courageous revolutionaries they were—while all the rest of us did the shit work and went around blowing things up to maintain their reputations.” [34]

Shakedown of Peace Movement

During a November 1969 anti-war demonstration in Washington, D.C. that was attended by a quarter-million demonstrators, a small group of Weathermen within the larger march participated in street fights with police. Beforehand, according to the account of historian Arthur Eckstein, Bill Ayers had threatened the march organizers with a troublesome disturbance by the Weathermen unless he was given $20,000 (more than $140,000 in 2020 dollars) to help offset the bail and fines incurred by the Weathermen during the “Days of Rage” riots in Chicago the prior month. The D.C. march organizers refused to pay Ayers. [35]

Intention to Kill

According to historian Arthur Eckstein, “Weatherman in the first three months of 1970 was, by any reasonable measure, a band intent on committing radical violence, not only against property but against people as well.” Eckstein is a professor of history at the University of Maryland-College Park and is the author of Bad Moon Rising: How the Weather Underground beat the FBI and lost the revolution. [36]

Similarly, referencing the same period in Days of Rage, his own history of the Weathermen, Vanity Fair journalist Bryan Burrough wrote that this was “bluntly put, when Weatherman set out to kill people” and become “revolutionary murderers.” [37]

But, according to Eckstein, Bill Ayers has “repeatedly asserted” that (except for the supposedly rouge New York City townhouse cell that brought about the March 1970 explosion) he and the rest of the Weathermen had never intended “lethal harm,” were “guilty merely of vandalism,” and “took pains never intentionally to injure or kill anyone.” [38]

Onetime Weather leader Howard Machtinger is one source among many who contradicts this position, telling an interviewer the following in 2011: “The myth, and this is always Bill Ayers’s line, is that Weather never set out to kill people, and that’s not true—we did. You know, policemen were fair game.” [39]

Similarly, Bryan Burrough quotes Bill Ayers during the planning for the “Days of Rage,” a violent Weatherman-led October 1969 demonstration in Chicago: “we’re also going to make it clear that when a pig gets iced, that’s a good thing, and that everyone who considers himself a revolutionary should be armed, should own a gun.” [40]

In their respective books Eckstein and Burrough both rely on FBI reports and the accounts of former members of the Weathermen. Evaluating the veracity of the FBI reports he cites, Eckstein noted that the agents and FBI director J. Edgar Hoover wrote the documents in real time and also had the (flawed) expectation that their work would remain classified, just as all FBI materials had been prior to the passage of the federal Freedom of Information Act in 1974.  Furthermore, Eckstein’s book extensively notes that the FBI’s analysis was often based on the Bureau using unconstitutional investigation methods (such as illegal wiretaps) that would later lead to the prosecution and conviction of high-level FBI officials. “They were discussing real law-enforcement problems among themselves,” surmised Eckstein; he argued that the agents had powerful incentives not to lie to one another or exaggerate what they were saying. [41]

March 1970 Failed Bombings

Both Burrough and Eckstein provide evidence that Ayers was cognizant and supportive of the plan by the New York City Weatherman cell to bomb a military dance at Fort Dix that would have inflicted significant casualties and likely fatalities. This bombing did not occur because of an accidental explosion March 6, 1970 that killed three Weathermen at a townhouse that was being used as a bomb-making factory. [42][43]

Eckstein also provided sources tying Ayers directly to two other bomb plots against Detroit police targets intended for the same day. Like the Fort Dix bombs, these too would have likely caused substantial injuries, but were interdicted and defused by law enforcement before they exploded. [44]

Burrough wrote that Bill Ayers “almost certainly knew” of the Fort Dix planning and had visited the townhouse during the same week the attack would occur, evidence that he and townhouse bomb-maker Terry Robbins were “trying to coordinate their strikes.” [45]

Also, Diana Oughton, then Bill Ayers’ girlfriend, was transferred from Ayers’ Midwest team to join the townhouse bombers just before the explosion that killed her. Eckstein summarizes an account given by townhouse explosion survivor Cathy Wilkerson, who said Oughton arrived already aware of the planned attack on the Fort Dix military dance and ready to participate in it. [46]

FBI informant Larry Grathwohl, working within Ayers’ Midwest Weatherman cell, and the Michigan State Police provided the testimony implying Ayers directed the bomb plots targeted against Detroit police. Grathwohl’s information allowed police to find and disarm both bombs. Historian Arthur Eckstein wrote that the one bomb’s location near the police union headquarters would have caused “many casualties.” Of the second bomb, intended for a Detroit Police precinct house, Eckstein evaluated it as four times larger, enough to have “destroyed the precinct headquarters and everyone in it.” [47]

In sworn trial testimony Grathwohl later stated he had warned Ayers about the likelihood of killing people in a restaurant near one bomb location, but was told by Ayers that “sometimes innocent people have to die in order to attain your ultimate goal.” Grathwohl also stated he had been sent to the scene by Ayers to determine when a bomb would hit the largest number of officers and that there was no plan to place a warning call before the detonation. [48]

A 1970 FBI report cited by Eckstein shows that on the morning of March 5 two Michigan State Police officers engaged in a stakeout of the Detroit Police Officers Association headquarters—the location Grathwohl had warned would be a bombing target the next day. The MSP troopers conducted a two-hour surveillance of a man who arrived to inspect the exact spot where Grathwohl said the bomb was to be placed. One of the officers followed the suspect from the DPOA site to a nearby home and recorded the license plate number of a vehicle located close by, the owner of which was later identified as a relative of Ayers. Shown a photo array of possible suspects by the FBI later that summer the trooper identified Bill Ayers as the man he had followed. [49]

Grathwohl had been in Madison, Wisconsin, for another Weather-related assignment during the two days before the bombs were placed. This was confirmed by the FBI agent in Madison. From this evidence, Eckstein concluded Grathwohl could not have fabricated the Detroit plot nor planted the bombs himself and was thus unlikely to be lying about those who had. Ayers has alleged that Grathwohl was a liar. [50]

On March 30, according to FBI reports cited by Eckstein, the Bureau raided a “bomb factory” in a Chicago apartment used by the Weathermen and traced those explosives and the dynamite used in Detroit to the same Colorado company. In a memo assessing these discoveries, FBI director J. Edgar Hoover wrote that an occupant of the apartment before the raid was Weather member Naomi Jaffe, who—according to Hoover—had been “in contact with Ayers shortly prior to March 6, 1970, when the dynamite was found in the Detroit police installations.” [51]

Bay Area Bombs

The Berkeley, California, police department was the target of the first two bombs set off after the Weathermen decided to attack with intent to injure and kill. Two pipe bombs filled with dynamite were placed in the police complex parking lot on the evening of February 12, 1970. They detonated within seconds of each other, timed for a shift change when people would be in the lot. The explosions inflicted minor injuries on six police officers and severe injuries to the arm of one other, who needed six hours of surgery. [52]

Another bomb timed to detonate during a police shift change blew up two nights later in nearby San Francisco. It grievously wounded a police officer who died two days later, blinded another, and injured many more. In 1980, during a federal criminal trial of two former senior FBI officials, a federal agent testified under oath that FBI explosives experts had identified dynamite seized from a Weather hiding spot in Chicago during March 1970 as coming from the same batch used in February to kill the San Francisco officer. [53]

Former Weatherman members have denied the organization was responsible for this killing. However, Bryan Burrough wrote that three different informants connected to the Weathermen provided investigators with statements implicating specific leaders as responsible for the San Francisco attack. One of the accusers was Larry Grathwohl, an FBI informant placed within Weather. Under oath, Grathwohl told a U.S. Senate investigation two years later that Bill Ayers had credited Bernardine Dohrn with overseeing the San Francisco bombing. [54]

A 2009 retrospective report on the San Francisco bombing published in San Francisco Weekly revealed that as recently as 2003 “Dohrn, Machtinger, and Ayers were all targets of a secret federal grand jury investigation” regarding the murder. The San Francisco magazine piece quotes Dohrn, Ayers and “other former Weathermen” as claiming it was a “right-wing conspiracy theory any suggestions that their organization was responsible” for killing the officer. [55]

After the Weathermen

Weathermen co-founders Bill Ayers and Bernardine Dohrn later married. When the pair came out of hiding in 1980, Dohrn accepted a plea bargain on state charges, which cost her a $1,500 fine and three years of probation. [56]

In 2001, Ayers’ memoir of his SDS and Weathermen experiences was published. “I don’t regret setting bombs,” he said in the opening sentence of an article about his book that was published by the New York Times on September 11, 2001. [57]

“We weren’t terrorists,” Ayers claimed later in a 2008 interview with the Chicago Tribune. “The biggest challenges to democracy in my youth were the war in Vietnam and racism. The truth is, we weren’t extreme enough in fighting against the war, and we weren’t extreme enough in fighting racism, which is still a stain on America.” [58]

Fellow Students for a Democratic Society leader Todd Gitlin disagreed, saying of the Weathermen movement in general, and Ayers and Dohrn in particular, that they “planned on being terrorists” and “wanted to be terrorists,” but wound up “failed terrorists,” so “let’s give them a medal for not killing anybody besides themselves.” [59]

“He was one of a bunch of people who committed absolutely, I mean literally, incoherent and reckless acts in the name of nonsensical beliefs,” said Gitlin of Ayers to the Chicago Tribune in 2008. “They [the Weathermen] wrecked SDS.” Gitlin also said Ayers was “not a deep thinker.” [60]

Following the arrest and conviction of Weather Underground guerillas David Gilbert and Kathy Boudin for murder and armed robbery in 1981, Ayers and Dohrn raised their son, Chesa Boudin. In November 2019, Chesa Boudin was elected the district attorney for San Francisco, California. [61]

Profession

Ayers later became a professor of education at the University of Illinois at Chicago. [62] Historian Arthur Eckstein wrote that after Ayers’ retirement in 2010 he was denied emeritus status because he had dedicated the Weatherman manifesto Prairie Fire to Sirhan Sirhan, the assassin who killed U.S. Sen. Robert F. Kennedy (D-NY). [63]

Support for Venezuelan Regime

Ayers made repeated visits to Venezuela during the regime of socialist dictator Hugo Chavez. While addressing the dictator at the beginning of a November 2006 speech in Caracas, Ayers extended “greetings and support” to Chavez, and repeatedly praised Chavez’s Bolivarian communist revolution. Ayers also referenced Chesa Boudin: “I also thank my youngest son, Chesa Boudin, who is interpreting my talk this morning and whose book on the Bolivarian revolution has played an important part in countering the barrage of lies spread by the U.S. State Department and the corrupted Northamerican media.” [64]

Political Views

In a January 2017 interview with the Chicago Reader, Ayers denounced the Democratic Party for being too ideologically aligned with Republicans:

I think Saturday Night Live got it right when the actress who played Hillary Clinton said, “You can vote for the crazy guy or you can vote for the Republican—me.” Hillary Clinton ran as a Republican, of course. Bill Clinton and the “New Democrats” and that whole group were the alternative to a Democratic Party grounded in the labor movement, the civil rights movement, the women’s movement. So the Clintons, the Gores, the mainstream Democratic Party, they brought us neoliberalism. For three decades or four decades, they’ve been in cahoots in an agenda around austerity, hollowing out the economy, privatization, crushing trade unions, permanent war. Permanent war is a bipartisan policy. Mass incarceration is a bipartisan policy. [65]

References

  1. Eckstein, Arthur M. Bad Moon Rising: How the Weather Underground beat the FBI and lost the revolution. New Haven – London: Yale University Press. 2016. ^
  2. Burrough, Bryan. Days of Rage: America’s Radical Underground, the FBI, and the Forgotten Age of Revolutionary Violence. New York: Penguin Press. 2015. ^
  3. Jamison, Peter. “Time Bomb.” San Francisco Weekly. September 16, 2009. Accessed May 7, 2020. https://archives.sfweekly.com/sanfrancisco/time-bomb/Content?oid=2174174&showFullText=true ^
  4. Eckstein, Arthur M. Bad Moon Rising: How the Weather Underground beat the FBI and lost the revolution. New Haven – London: Yale University Press. 2016. ^
  5. Burrough, Bryan. Days of Rage: America’s Radical Underground, the FBI, and the Forgotten Age of Revolutionary Violence. New York: Penguin Press. 2015. ^
  6. Zorn, Eric. “The calm after the storm — School reform crusader Bill Ayers works within the system now, but don’t ask the former Weatherman to apologize for his radical past.” Chicago Tribune. September 11, 2001. Accessed May 7, 2020. https://blogs.chicagotribune.com/news_columnists_ezorn/2008/08/the-calm-after.html ^
  7. “Which Way The Wind Blows: Bill Ayers On Obama.” NPR. November 18, 2008. Accessed May 8, 2020. https://www.npr.org/templates/transcript/transcript.php?storyId=97112600 ^
  8. Sheehy, Kate. “Chesa Boudin, son of infamous Brink’s truck robbers, elected San Francisco DA.” New York Post. November 11, 2019. Accessed May 8, 2020. https://nypost.com/2019/11/11/chesa-boudin-son-of-infamous-brinks-truck-robbers-elected-san-francisco-da/ ^
  9. Smith, Dinitia. “No Regrets for a Love Of Explosives; In a Memoir of Sorts, a War Protester Talks of Life With the Weathermen.” New York Times. September 11, 2001. Accessed May 8, 2020. https://www.nytimes.com/2001/09/11/books/no-regrets-for-love-explosives-memoir-sorts-war-protester-talks-life-with.html ^
  10. Zorn, Eric. “The calm after the storm — School reform crusader Bill Ayers works within the system now, but don’t ask the former Weatherman to apologize for his radical past.” Chicago Tribune. September 11, 2001. Accessed May 7, 2020. https://blogs.chicagotribune.com/news_columnists_ezorn/2008/08/the-calm-after.html ^
  11. Zorn, Eric. “The calm after the storm — School reform crusader Bill Ayers works within the system now, but don’t ask the former Weatherman to apologize for his radical past.” Chicago Tribune. September 11, 2001. Accessed May 7, 2020. https://blogs.chicagotribune.com/news_columnists_ezorn/2008/08/the-calm-after.html ^
  12. Zorn, Eric. “The calm after the storm — School reform crusader Bill Ayers works within the system now, but don’t ask the former Weatherman to apologize for his radical past.” Chicago Tribune. September 11, 2001. Accessed May 7, 2020. https://blogs.chicagotribune.com/news_columnists_ezorn/2008/08/the-calm-after.html ^
  13. Zorn, Eric. “The calm after the storm — School reform crusader Bill Ayers works within the system now, but don’t ask the former Weatherman to apologize for his radical past.” Chicago Tribune. September 11, 2001. Accessed May 7, 2020. https://blogs.chicagotribune.com/news_columnists_ezorn/2008/08/the-calm-after.html ^
  14. Stern, Marlow. “Exclusive: Bill Ayers On the Weathermen, Obama’s Crap Job & More.” Daily Beast. July 11, 2017. Accessed May 7, 2020. https://www.thedailybeast.com/exclusive-bill-ayers-on-the-weathermen-obamas-crap-job-and-more ^
  15. Stern, Marlow. “Exclusive: Bill Ayers On the Weathermen, Obama’s Crap Job & More.” Daily Beast. July 11, 2017. Accessed May 7, 2020. https://www.thedailybeast.com/exclusive-bill-ayers-on-the-weathermen-obamas-crap-job-and-more ^
  16. Zorn, Eric. “The calm after the storm — School reform crusader Bill Ayers works within the system now, but don’t ask the former Weatherman to apologize for his radical past.” Chicago Tribune. September 11, 2001. Accessed May 7, 2020. https://blogs.chicagotribune.com/news_columnists_ezorn/2008/08/the-calm-after.html ^
  17. Zorn, Eric. “The calm after the storm — School reform crusader Bill Ayers works within the system now, but don’t ask the former Weatherman to apologize for his radical past.” Chicago Tribune. September 11, 2001. Accessed May 7, 2020. https://blogs.chicagotribune.com/news_columnists_ezorn/2008/08/the-calm-after.html ^
  18. Eckstein, Arthur M. Bad Moon Rising: How the Weather Underground beat the FBI and lost the revolution. New Haven – London: Yale University Press. 2016. ^
  19. Burrough, Bryan. Days of Rage: America’s Radical Underground, the FBI, and the Forgotten Age of Revolutionary Violence. New York: Penguin Press. 2015. ^
  20. Jamison, Peter. “Time Bomb.” San Francisco Weekly. September 16, 2009. Accessed May 7, 2020. https://archives.sfweekly.com/sanfrancisco/time-bomb/Content?oid=2174174&showFullText=true ^
  21. Eckstein, Arthur M. Bad Moon Rising: How the Weather Underground beat the FBI and lost the revolution. New Haven – London: Yale University Press. 2016. ^
  22. Burrough, Bryan. Days of Rage: America’s Radical Underground, the FBI, and the Forgotten Age of Revolutionary Violence. New York: Penguin Press. 2015. ^
  23. Jamison, Peter. “Time Bomb.” San Francisco Weekly. September 16, 2009. Accessed May 7, 2020. https://archives.sfweekly.com/sanfrancisco/time-bomb/Content?oid=2174174&showFullText=true ^
  24. Eckstein, Arthur M. Bad Moon Rising: How the Weather Underground beat the FBI and lost the revolution. New Haven – London: Yale University Press. 2016. ^
  25. Burrough, Bryan. Days of Rage: America’s Radical Underground, the FBI, and the Forgotten Age of Revolutionary Violence. New York: Penguin Press. 2015. ^
  26. Eckstein, Arthur M. Bad Moon Rising: How the Weather Underground beat the FBI and lost the revolution. New Haven – London: Yale University Press. 2016. ^
  27. Burrough, Bryan. Days of Rage: America’s Radical Underground, the FBI, and the Forgotten Age of Revolutionary Violence. New York: Penguin Press. 2015. ^
  28. Eckstein, Arthur M. Bad Moon Rising: How the Weather Underground beat the FBI and lost the revolution. New Haven – London: Yale University Press. 2016. ^
  29. Burrough, Bryan. Days of Rage: America’s Radical Underground, the FBI, and the Forgotten Age of Revolutionary Violence. New York: Penguin Press. 2015. ^
  30. Eckstein, Arthur M. Bad Moon Rising: How the Weather Underground beat the FBI and lost the revolution. New Haven – London: Yale University Press. 2016. ^
  31. Burrough, Bryan. Days of Rage: America’s Radical Underground, the FBI, and the Forgotten Age of Revolutionary Violence. New York: Penguin Press. 2015. ^
  32. Burrough, Bryan. Days of Rage: America’s Radical Underground, the FBI, and the Forgotten Age of Revolutionary Violence. New York: Penguin Press. 2015. ^
  33. Burrough, Bryan. Days of Rage: America’s Radical Underground, the FBI, and the Forgotten Age of Revolutionary Violence. New York: Penguin Press. 2015. ^
  34. Burrough, Bryan. Days of Rage: America’s Radical Underground, the FBI, and the Forgotten Age of Revolutionary Violence. New York: Penguin Press. 2015. ^
  35. Eckstein, Arthur M. Bad Moon Rising: How the Weather Underground beat the FBI and lost the revolution. New Haven – London: Yale University Press. 2016. ^
  36. Eckstein, Arthur M. Bad Moon Rising: How the Weather Underground beat the FBI and lost the revolution. New Haven – London: Yale University Press. 2016. ^
  37. Burrough, Bryan. Days of Rage: America’s Radical Underground, the FBI, and the Forgotten Age of Revolutionary Violence. New York: Penguin Press. 2015. ^
  38. Eckstein, Arthur M. Bad Moon Rising: How the Weather Underground beat the FBI and lost the revolution. New Haven – London: Yale University Press. 2016. ^
  39. Eckstein, Arthur M. Bad Moon Rising: How the Weather Underground beat the FBI and lost the revolution. New Haven – London: Yale University Press. 2016. ^
  40. Burrough, Bryan. Days of Rage: America’s Radical Underground, the FBI, and the Forgotten Age of Revolutionary Violence. New York: Penguin Press. 2015. ^
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  42. Eckstein, Arthur M. Bad Moon Rising: How the Weather Underground beat the FBI and lost the revolution. New Haven – London: Yale University Press. 2016. ^
  43. Burrough, Bryan. Days of Rage: America’s Radical Underground, the FBI, and the Forgotten Age of Revolutionary Violence. New York: Penguin Press. 2015. ^
  44. Eckstein, Arthur M. Bad Moon Rising: How the Weather Underground beat the FBI and lost the revolution. New Haven – London: Yale University Press. 2016. ^
  45. Burrough, Bryan. Days of Rage: America’s Radical Underground, the FBI, and the Forgotten Age of Revolutionary Violence. New York: Penguin Press. 2015. ^
  46. Eckstein, Arthur M. Bad Moon Rising: How the Weather Underground beat the FBI and lost the revolution. New Haven – London: Yale University Press. 2016. ^
  47. Eckstein, Arthur M. Bad Moon Rising: How the Weather Underground beat the FBI and lost the revolution. New Haven – London: Yale University Press. 2016. ^
  48. Eckstein, Arthur M. Bad Moon Rising: How the Weather Underground beat the FBI and lost the revolution. New Haven – London: Yale University Press. 2016. ^
  49. Eckstein, Arthur M. Bad Moon Rising: How the Weather Underground beat the FBI and lost the revolution. New Haven – London: Yale University Press. 2016. ^
  50. Eckstein, Arthur M. Bad Moon Rising: How the Weather Underground beat the FBI and lost the revolution. New Haven – London: Yale University Press. 2016. ^
  51. Eckstein, Arthur M. Bad Moon Rising: How the Weather Underground beat the FBI and lost the revolution. New Haven – London: Yale University Press. 2016. ^
  52. Burrough, Bryan. Days of Rage: America’s Radical Underground, the FBI, and the Forgotten Age of Revolutionary Violence. New York: Penguin Press. 2015. ^
  53. Eckstein, Arthur M. Bad Moon Rising: How the Weather Underground beat the FBI and lost the revolution. New Haven – London: Yale University Press. 2016. ^
  54. Burrough, Bryan. Days of Rage: America’s Radical Underground, the FBI, and the Forgotten Age of Revolutionary Violence. New York: Penguin Press. 2015. ^
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