Person

Bernardine Dohrn

Bernardine Dohrn NLN cropped (link) by Bernardine_Dohrn_NLN.jpg: Thomas Good derivative work: Gobonobo (talk) is licensed CC BY-SA 3.0 (link)
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Co-founder, Weather Underground

Former member, Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)

For more see: Weather Underground, Students for a Democratic Society, and Bill Ayers

Bernardine Dohrn was an original co-founder and arguably the top leader of the Weather Underground, a radical-left violent extremist group that was active from the late 1960s through the mid-1970s. Prior to this she was a member of Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), a left-wing-turned-revolutionary Communist organization that split apart shortly after founding of Weatherman, the faction that would later evolve into the Weather Underground. Former Weathermen, law enforcement sources and historians of Weatherman have accused Dohrn of both encouraging and participating in attempts by the terrorist organization to kill police and U.S. military personnel. While no murders have been conclusively tied to the Weathermen, police officers were injured in at least two bombings. [1] [2] [3]

Dohrn was one of two Weather leaders to become one the FBI’s ten “Most Wanted” fugitives. The FBI was never able to catch and secure prosecution of any major Weatherman participants, including Dohrn. Unconstitutional investigation methods used by the Bureau compromised the ability of federal law enforcement to prosecute the Weathermen, leading the U.S. Department of Justice to drop the most serious charges in 1973 and allowing nearly all the Weathermen leaders to come out from hiding and avoid serious felony prosecutions. [4] [5]

Dohrn and fellow Weather co-founder Bill Ayers came out of hiding in 1980 and later married. [6] Dohrn became an associate clinical professor at Northwestern University School of Law, and for 23 years was the director of its Children and Family Justice Center. [7]

Following the arrest and conviction of former Weather Underground guerillas David Gilbert and Kathy Boudin for murder and armed robbery in 1981, Ayers and Dohrn raised their son, Chesa Boudin; in November 2019, Chesa Boudin was elected the district attorney for San Francisco, California. [8]

Personal Background

Bernardine Dohrn was born in 1942 and grew up in Whitefish Bay, Wisconsin, a suburb of Milwaukee on the Lake Michigan shoreline. She was a high school cheerleader. According to historian Arthur Eckstein, her father owned an appliance store in the town. An Encyclopedia.com entry states her father was an “appliance store credit manager” and her mother was a secretary. [9] [10]

Dohrn graduated from the University of Chicago in 1963 and obtained a law degree from the school in 1967. [11] She moved to New York City and began working for the National Lawyers Guild (NLG). One task while at NLG was the arranging of bail bonds for members of the Columbia University chapter of Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), a left-wing-turned-revolutionary Communist organization that split apart shortly after the founding of Weatherman. [12] In his history of SDS, Kirkpatrick Sale described the NLG as the “center of legal advice and strategy for the New Left.” [13]

In the summer of 1968, having recently joined Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) and openly declaring herself a “revolutionary communist,” Dohrn won election to one of the three top SDS leadership positions. Next, according to Days of Rage, a history of leftist revolutionary violence in the 1970s written by Vanity Fair correspondent Bryan Burrough, Dohrn and her then-boyfriend John Jacobs became a “force of nature” within SDS and “had their eyes on seizing overall control of SDS.” Burrough wrote that their Chicago apartment became the “epicenter of SDS politics” for “several who would achieve prominence in Weatherman.” [14]

What became known as the Weather Underground began as one of two feuding revolutionary communist factions emerging from the June 1969 national convention held by SDS—the last national meeting before SDS ceased to exist. The rival SDS faction was aligned with the Progressive Labor Party (PL), a Maoist organization created in 1962 by disgruntled former members of the Communist Party USA (CPUSA). [15]

Dohrn’s “Weatherman” faction led the expulsion proceedings against PL. A very acrimonious convention that had included fistfights between the factions concluded with the two rival SDS organizations voting themselves to be the genuine SDS. But, according to Burrough, “everyone understood that Weatherman had carried the day, in large part because its members had taken control of the national office in the days before the convention.” [16]

The Weather Underground

Dohrn remained the most prominent of the leaders of the Weather Underground throughout nearly all of its history. Former Weathermen, law enforcement sources, and historians of Weatherman have accused Dohrn of both encouraging and participating in attempts by the organization to kill police and U.S. military personnel. [17] [18] [19]

Weatherman History

In separate books detailing the history of the Weathermen, professional historian Arthur Eckstein and Vanity Fair journalist Bryan Burrough used law enforcement documents and personal recollections of numerous former Weathermen leaders to demonstrate that through at least May 1970 the organization aggressively promoted efforts to kill police officers and military personnel as part of its goal of sparking the violent overthrow of the U.S. government. While no murders have been conclusively tied to the Weathermen, police officers were injured in at least two Weatherman attacks. As late as 2003, several former Weathermen leaders were the subject of a federal probe into the February 1970 bombing death of a San Francisco, California, police officer that occurred two days after a known-Weatherman bombing that injured police in nearby Berkeley. [20] [21] [22]

Eckstein and Burrough both provided strong evidence that two coordinated Weathermen bombing plots set for March 6, 1970, were intended to produce massive fatalities among police in Detroit, Michigan, and among military personnel who would be attending a dance at Fort Dix, New Jersey. Operating on the advice of an FBI informant, local law enforcement in Detroit discovered and disabled two large explosives on the morning of March 6. On the same day, the New York City Weathermen faction, working on bombs intended for Fort Dix, accidentally detonated a device, collapsing the townhouse in which they were working, killing three of them. [23] [24]

In May 1970, on the run from the FBI following the townhouse explosion and discovery of the Detroit bombs, the Weathermen leadership declared the organization would pivot to a strategy of non-lethal bombings. This meeting and a subsequent public declaration in December 1970 promoted a false mythology that the townhouse bombers had been a violent and misguided faction within a larger Weatherman movement that had supposedly always pursued only property damage, and not personal injury. The Weathermen conducted at least 25 bombings between 1969 and 1975, and after May 1970 began phoning ahead warnings that prevented injuries after June 1970. Noteworthy actions included bombings of the U.S. Capitol, the Pentagon, and aiding in the prison escape of LSD guru Timothy Leary. Burrough has written that members of the left-wing National Lawyers Guild provided crucial financial and other assistance to the Weathermen. [25] [26]

Despite a significant investigation, costing an estimated $86.6 million in 2020 dollars, the FBI was never able to catch and secure prosecution of any major Weatherman participants, two of whom appeared on the Bureau’s list of ten “Most Wanted” fugitives. In its desperation, the FBI resorted to unconstitutional methods to pursue the Weathermen, including warrantless break-ins and electronic surveillance of family members of Weathermen leaders. This behavior compromised the ability of federal law enforcement to prosecute the Weathermen, leading the U.S. Department of Justice to drop the most serious charges in 1973 and allowing nearly all the Weathermen leaders to come out from hiding and avoid serious felony prosecutions. [27] [28]

Eckstein and Burrough each wrote that federal law enforcement and the administration of President Richard Nixon severely overestimated the size and threat posed by the Weather Underground, affording the group more attention and lasting historical reputation that it otherwise deserved. Burrough concluded, “In every conceivable way, the young intellectuals who had come together in 1969 to form Weatherman had utterly failed: failed to lead the radical left over the barricades into armed underground struggle; failed to fight or support the black militants they championed; failed to force agencies of the American “ruling class” into a single change more significant than the spread of metal detectors and guard dogs.” [29] [30]

“La Pasionaria of the Lunatic Left”

Dohrn was both the only woman and clearly the most recognizable personality to occupy one of the handful of top leadership spots during the Weatherman terrorism and bombing period (1969-1975). The first official public statement issued by the Weathermen, “A Declaration of a State of War” (May 21, 1970), was an audio recording from Dohrn in which she introduced herself in the opening sentence. Subsequent written statements from the Weathermen—at least three in 1970 alone—carried only Dohrn’s individual name as the spokesperson for the group. She was one of two leaders of the Weather Underground to be named one of the FBI’s ten “Most Wanted” fugitives. [31] [32]

Former FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover nicknamed her the “La Pasionaria of the Lunatic Left,” likely a reference to Spanish Communist Dolores Ibárruri (1895-1989). Nicknamed “La Pasionaria” (“Passionflower” in English), Ibárruri was a fiery orator and hero for Spanish Republicans fighting in the Spanish Civil War and still an important political figure in Spain at the time of Hoover’s statement regarding Dohrn. [33] [34]

Multiple accounts credit Dohrn’s leadership positions within SDS and then the Weathermen to a combination of her intellect, exceptional charisma and striking personal appearance.

“She has been described as magnetic, sexually provocative, and a spellbinding speaker,” wrote historian Arthur Eckstein of Dohrn’s emergence within SDS. “But she was also a trained lawyer and could hold her own in long political debates with Carl Oglesby, who was almost ten years older than she and a past president of SDS.” [35]

Writing that Dohrn was “destined to become the glamourous leading lady of the American underground,” Bryan Burrough described her as “strikingly attractive,” as well as “unquestionably brilliant, cool, focused, militant and highly sexual.” [36]

Jim Mellen was a 35-year-old veteran SDS activist and mentor to Bill Ayers (Dohrn’s future husband) when Dohrn emerged as an SDS leader. Mellen, according to Burrough, said Dohrn “used sex to explore and cement political alliances” and that for her sex “was a form of ideological activity.” [37]

Burrough also wrote that women “idolized” Dohrn. He quotes Susan Stern, another woman who joined Weathermen, who said of Dohrn that everyone “wanted to be in her favor, to be like her,” and compared Dohrn to “a queen . . . a high priestess, a mythological silhouette.” [38]

Support for Charles Manson

Addressing an audience at SDS/Weatherman’s so-called “Flint War Council” during the 1969-1970 Christmas-New Year break, Dohrn voiced support for the violence carried out by the cult “family” of Charles Manson. [39] [40]

The Flint War Council was described by Days of Rage author Bryan Burrough as a “pep rally from Hell, a five-day orgy of violent rhetoric intended to set the stage for the underground revolution.” A banner with a rifle hung over the meeting hall, with images of supposed revolutionary heroes adorning one wall and enemies on the opposing wall. The heroes included Communist icons such as Karl Marx, Vladimir Lenin and Fidel Castro; the enemies side included the images of President Richard Nixon, FBI director J. Edgar Hoover and Sharon Tate—the pregnant actress brutally murdered months earlier by Manson’s followers. A subsequent defector from the Weatherman/SDS movement informed the FBI that Manson had become a hero to the Michigan branch of SDS that was led by future Weatherman leader Bill Ayers. [41] [42]

In her address to the gathering Dohrn spoke approvingly about the Manson cult’s murder of Tate and others: “Dig it, they murdered those pigs and then ate dinner at their dining table and then stuck a fork in their bellies! Wild!” Afterward, Weathermen began greeting one another with a “fork” symbol—four fingers extended upward. [43] [44]

In a New York Times interview published on September 11, 2001, Dohrn claimed these statements were a “joke” and that she was instead “mocking violence in America.” The succeeding paragraphs in the Times account note Dohrn’s participation in bombings that took place after she made the statements about the Manson murders. [45]

Days of Rage Planning

The first violent engagement launched by the Weathermen was the so-called Days of Rage, which occurred in Chicago starting on October 8, 1969. In his book, Days of Rage, Bryan Burrough wrote that the Weathermen leaders “crisscrossed the country” telling media the event would be “the largest, most violent mass protest the Movement had seen” and an “urban Armageddon.” Bill Ayers advised “we’re also going to make it clear that when a pig gets iced, that’s a good thing, and that everyone who considers himself a revolutionary should be armed, should own a gun.” [46]

In July 1969, before the Days of Rage, Dohrn and other members of the Weatherman faction of SDS traveled to Cuba and met with both Cuban and Vietnamese communists. In his book Bad Moon Rising, historian Arthur Eckstein wrote that notes taken by Dohrn and later captured by the FBI demonstrate that both groups of foreign communists advised the Americans against using violent tactics to confront police. [47]

Then in September 1969, as Days of Rage planning reached its end stages, the advice not to instigate violence was again repeated by a Cuban diplomat who told Dohrn his government opposed their plan for confrontations with police. Dohrn responded by accusing the Cuban representative of a revolutionary communist government of being a counterrevolutionary. [48]

The first of the known Weatherman bombings was detonated just prior to the start of the Days of Rage. Non-serious gunshot wounds were inflicted on six Weathermen during the downtown Chicago riot. A city attorney sustained an injury leaving him a quadriplegic. [49]

High Living of Leadership

Bryan Burrough wrote that during the underground period the top Weather leadership, namely Bill Ayers, Bernardine Dohrn, and Jeff Jones, lived in a “modern gated home” in a waterside San Francisco suburb that one visitor described as a “big, glamorous house” that included a “beautiful deck” and “four bedrooms” that were “totally empty.” However, Burrough noted this was not the lifestyle of non-leaders, who “lived on the edge of poverty,” and that the disparity led to resentment. [50]

Cathy Wilkerson, one of the Weather bombers who survived the New York townhouse explosion, said the leadership trio would “go to restaurants we could not afford” and that the disparity in lifestyle between the leadership level and her level “became really gross.” [51]

Likewise, Rick Ayers (Bill’s brother) said he and his compatriots were “dangerously poor” while Bill Ayers, Jones and Dohrn “always ate good food” and “always slept between clean sheets.” According to Rick Ayers, the leadership level “lived off radical lawyers and moneyed friends who told them what they wanted to hear—what courageous revolutionaries they were—while all the rest of us did the shit work and went around blowing things up to maintain their reputations.” [52]

Intention to Kill

According to historian Arthur Eckstein, “Weatherman in the first three months of 1970 was, by any reasonable measure, a band intent on committing radical violence, not only against property but against people as well.” Eckstein is a professor of history at the University of Maryland-College Park and is the author of Bad Moon Rising: How the Weather Underground beat the FBI and lost the revolution. [53]

Similarly, referencing the same period in Days of Rage, his own history of the Weathermen, Vanity Fair journalist Bryan Burrough wrote that this was “bluntly put, when Weatherman set out to kill people” and become “revolutionary murderers.” [54]

But, according to Eckstein, Bill Ayers has “repeatedly asserted” that (except for the supposedly rouge New York City townhouse cell that brought about the March 1970 explosion) he and the rest of the Weathermen had never intended “lethal harm,” were “guilty merely of vandalism,” and “took pains never intentionally to injure or kill anyone.” [55]

Similarly, in an interview for Winthrop University’s oral history program, Dohrn stated the Weathermen conducted only symbolic bombings against property. [56]

Onetime Weather leader Howard Machtinger is one source among many who contradicts this position, telling an interviewer the following in 2011: “The myth, and this is always Bill Ayers’s line, is that Weather never set out to kill people, and that’s not true—we did. You know, policemen were fair game.” [57]

In their respective books Eckstein and Burrough both rely on FBI reports and the accounts of former members of the Weathermen. Evaluating the veracity of the FBI reports he cites, Eckstein noted that the agents and FBI director J. Edgar Hoover wrote the documents in real time and also had the (flawed) expectation that their work would remain classified, just as all FBI materials had been prior to the passage of the federal Freedom of Information Act in 1974.  Furthermore, Eckstein’s book extensively notes that the FBI’s analysis was often based on the Bureau using unconstitutional investigation methods (such as illegal wiretaps) that would later lead to the prosecution and conviction of high-level FBI officials. “They were discussing real law-enforcement problems among themselves,” surmised Eckstein; he argued that the agents had powerful incentives not to lie to one another or exaggerate what they were saying. [58]

Bay Area Bombs

The Berkeley, California, police department was the target of the first two bombs set off after the Weathermen decided to attack with intent to injure and kill. Two pipe bombs filled with dynamite were placed in the police complex parking lot on the evening of February 12, 1970. They detonated within seconds of each other, timed for a shift change when people would be in the lot. The explosions inflicted minor injuries on six police officers and severe injuries to the arm of one other, who needed six hours of surgery. [59]

Another bomb timed to detonate during a police shift change blew up two nights later in nearby San Francisco. It grievously wounded a police officer who died two days later, blinded another, and injured many more. In 1980, during a federal criminal trial of two former senior FBI officials, a federal agent testified under oath that FBI explosives experts had identified dynamite seized from a Weather hiding spot in Chicago during March 1970 as coming from the same batch used in February to kill the San Francisco officer. [60]

Former Weatherman members have denied the organization was responsible for this killing. However, Bryan Burrough wrote that three different informants connected to the Weathermen provided investigators with statements implicating specific leaders as responsible for the San Francisco attack. One of the accusers was Larry Grathwohl, an FBI informant placed within Weather. Under oath, Grathwohl told a U.S. Senate investigation two years later that Bill Ayers had credited Bernardine Dohrn with overseeing the San Francisco bombing. [61]

A 2009 retrospective report on the San Francisco bombing published in San Francisco Weekly revealed that as recently as 2003 “Dohrn, Machtinger, and Ayers were all targets of a secret federal grand jury investigation” regarding the murder. The San Francisco magazine piece quotes Dohrn, Ayers and “other former Weathermen” as claiming it was a “right-wing conspiracy theory any suggestions that their organization was responsible” for killing the officer. [62]

Scapegoating of Townhouse Bombers

After the deaths of the townhouse bombers in March 1970, Weatherman began a policy shift away from seeking to kill or maim with their bombings. This began at a May 1970 meeting of Weather Underground leaders in the northern California town of Mendocino. According to author Bryan Burrough’s account in Days of Rage, Bernardine Dohrn and Jeff Jones called the secretive meeting with the intent to “take control of Weatherman” and steer the organization in a “life affirming” direction of “armed propaganda.” Dohrn told the group future bombings at police and other facilities would occur only when injuries were unlikely and after warnings were given beforehand. A writer for a radical left publication later identified this as “responsible terrorism.” Cathy Wilkerson, one of the survivors of the townhouse explosion who would become one of the bombmakers under the new strategy, said the Weathermen had “decided to take violence out of the equation.” [63]

During the meeting, Weatherman co-founder John Jacobs urged a continuation of efforts to kill and maim with revolutionary violence. Dohrn responded by informing the membership that Jacobs had been purged from the Weatherman movement. [64]

In a subsequent public statement issued in December 1970, Dohrn portrayed the townhouse bombers as a rogue and uncharacteristically violent sect of the Weathermen that had evolved from “fire-bombing to anti-personnel bombs.” Dohrn defined this as a “military error” and asserted it had not reflected the ostensibly less violent behavior of the larger Weathermen movement. Dohrn wrote that actions from the rest of the “Weatherpeople” had “obviously not gone in for large scale material damage” and inflicted damage equal to nothing more than a “bee sting.” [65]

Citing multiple witnesses from within the Weather Underground, historian Arthur Eckstein has argued this portrayal was a whitewashing of Weatherman’s history of violent intent—a myth he argued was perpetuated for decades afterward by a few very vocal Weather leaders. [66]

Weatherman leader Mark Rudd—a best friend of John Jacobs—has stated that the effort to rewrite and pacify Weatherman history included a deliberate effort by Jacobs to act as a scapegoat for past violence. Immediately after Jacobs was purged from Weatherman in May 1970, according to Rudd, the two men went to commiserate at a nearby tavern.

Rudd wrote that the following conversation took place:[67]

Jacobs: “I’m accepting my expulsion for the good of the organization. Someone has to take the blame. Bernardine [Dohrn], Billy [Ayers], and Jeff [Jones] are right about the military error.”

Rudd: “But everyone knew what was being planned. We were all together in New York with Terry [Robbins] the week before the action, and nobody raised any objections.”

Jacobs: “It doesn’t matter. We have to create the fiction that they were always right so that they can lead the organization.” [68]

If true, this account (i.e.: “everyone knew what was being planned”) implicates Dohrn and the other Weather leaders as knowledgeable of the plot to bomb a military dance at Fort Dix in New Jersey on March 6, 1970. The bombs intended for Fort Dix instead accidentally blew up inside the New York City townhouse on the morning of the intended attack, killing bomb-maker Terry Robbins and two others. [69]

Days of Rage author Bryan Burrough and historian Arthur Eckstein both wrote that the Fort Dix attack, had it occurred, would have inflicted severe casualties. Burrough wrote that bomb-maker Terry Robbins planned to commit “mass murder.” Burrough also cites a former Weatherman “confidant” close to Dohrn who says she has privately admitted she knew of the Fort Dix plan. [70] [71]

Weatherman Ron Fliegelman became one of the organization’s primary bomb designers after the death of Robbins. Interviewed by Eckstein, Fliegelman said the actions of Jacobs and Robbins were fully in line with the Weather leadership as a whole: “Terry and JJ [Jacobs] didn’t go off and do something on their own . . . All the main leaders knew what was going on with the townhouse.” [72]

Rockefeller Kidnapping Plot

Weatherman Howard Machtinger told Days of Rage author Bryan Burrough that during the summer of 1970, after the supposed pivot away from lethal violence, he was ordered by Weather leaders to take a group to Maine to kidnap of a member of the Rockefeller family. If Machtinger is to be believed, wrote Burrough, this is suggestive that Weather was still “actively considering high crimes” that would be “harmful to the myth” that it had “dedicated itself solely to nonviolent actions.” [73]

According to Machtinger, his group failed to find the home or their kidnapping target nor formulate a plan. Machtinger said that his failure to move the kidnapping plan forward resulted in his being swiftly purged from the Weathermen when he returned from Maine. [74]

“You know, there’s this myth that Bernardine ruled out any violent actions after Mendocino, but it’s just not true,” said Machtinger of the incident. “The line is much blurrier than that. The fact is, we were prepared to do a political kidnapping, and in fact we tried to, but we weren’t able to carry it out.” [75]

After the Weathermen

By 1976 the Weather Underground, like SDS before it, was falling apart as a result of factional disputes between rival communists. One of them, Clayton Van Lydegraf, was a previously expelled Weatherman who re-emerged to lead the group and take revenge on those who had expelled him. In what Days of Rage author Bryan Burrough characterized as “Stalin-like” purges, Van Lydegraf was able to extract a startling taped confession from Dohrn in which she implicated herself, Bill Ayers, and Jeff Jones as participants in the “naked white supremacy, white superiority, and chauvinist arrogance.” Dohrn stated in her confession that she was making the self-critical statement “to acknowledge, repudiate, and denounce the counterrevolutionary politics and direction of the Weather Underground Organization.” [76]

Weathermen co-founders Bill Ayers and Bernardine Dohrn were themselves expelled from their own creation. They later married, had children and were still together as of May 2020. When the pair came out of hiding in 1980, Dohrn accepted a plea bargain on state charges, which cost her a $1,500 fine and three years of probation. [77] [78]

Following the arrest and conviction of Weather Underground guerillas David Gilbert and Kathy Boudin for murder and armed robbery in 1981, Ayers and Dohrn raised their son, Chesa Boudin. In November 2019, Chesa Boudin was elected the district attorney for San Francisco, California. [79]

Dohrn was called to testify in the trial regarding the robbery. She refused to cooperate and was jailed for contempt. According to historian Arthur Eckstein, this jailing was the reason she was denied an opportunity to take the bar exam and become a practicing attorney. A 2001 New York Times report stated she took the New York bar exam but was “turned down by the Bar Association’s character committee because of her political activities.” [80] [81]

“I was shocked at the anger toward me,” Dohrn said in a 1993 interview regarding her effort to move past her life as an underground guerilla fighter. “I think part of it’s reserved for women. You stepped out of the role of the good girl.” [82]

Dohrn became an associate clinical professor at Northwestern University School of Law, and for 23 years was the director of its Children and Family Justice Center. [83]

References

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  2. Burrough, Bryan. Days of Rage: America’s Radical Underground, the FBI, and the Forgotten Age of Revolutionary Violence. New York: Penguin Press. 2015. ^
  3. Jamison, Peter. “Time Bomb.” San Francisco Weekly. September 16, 2009. Accessed May 11, 2020. https://archives.sfweekly.com/sanfrancisco/time-bomb/Content?oid=2174174&showFullText=true ^
  4. Eckstein, Arthur M. Bad Moon Rising: How the Weather Underground beat the FBI and lost the revolution. New Haven – London: Yale University Press. 2016. ^
  5. Burrough, Bryan. Days of Rage: America’s Radical Underground, the FBI, and the Forgotten Age of Revolutionary Violence. New York: Penguin Press. 2015. ^
  6. Zorn, Eric. “The calm after the storm — School reform crusader Bill Ayers works within the system now, but don’t ask the former Weatherman to apologize for his radical past.” Chicago Tribune. September 11, 2001. Accessed May 7, 2020. https://blogs.chicagotribune.com/news_columnists_ezorn/2008/08/the-calm-after.html ^
  7. “Ellen Meeropol in conversation with Bernardine Dohrn.” Women and Children First. June 17, 2017. Accessed May 13, 2020. https://www.womenandchildrenfirst.com/event/ellen-meeropol-conversation-bernardine-dohrn ^
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