Non-profit

Girl Scouts of the United States of America (GSUSA)

Website:

www.girlscouts.org/%20

Location:

New York, NY

Tax ID:

13-1624016

Tax-Exempt Status:

501(c)(3)

Budget (2019):

Revenue: $122,052,984
Expenses: $130,040,613
Assets: $271,397,447

Founded:

1912

Type:

Girl’s Advocacy Group

Executive Director:

Sofia Chang

Girl Scouts of the United States of America (GSUSA) is an organization for girls that has traditionally emphasized service, interaction with the outdoors, and self-reliance. [1] Since its founding in 1912, the organization has grown to include 111 Girl Scout councils in the U.S. and overseas and claims 1.76 million members as of 2018. [2]

GSUSA has been inaccurately accused of having a formal relationship with the pro-abortion organization Planned Parenthood, [3] possibly due to a Texas-based council having supported local Planned Parenthood sexuality education materials and the national group having included abortion-supporting politicians among shared “women who made a difference” stories; [4]  faced increased membership decline since the Boy Scouts of America (BSA) opened its membership to girls in 2018; [5] [6] and was subject to left-of-center scrutiny for tweeting a congratulatory message marking the confirmation of U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justice Amy Coney Barrett in 2020 that GSUSA ultimately removed. [7]

In 2021, GSUSA received a $500,000 grant from the left-of-center Ford Foundation to become a critical race theory-influenced “anti-racist organization.” [8] [9] GSUSA also supports the far-left Black Lives Matter movement, [10] “advocates for climate justice,” [11] and released a critical race theory-inspired “anti-racism” patch for their uniforms in 2020. [12] [13]

History and Leadership

Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA) was founded by Juliette Gordon “Daisy” Low in Savannah, Georgia, in 1912 as an organization for girls that emphasized service, interaction with the outdoors, and self-reliance. [14] GSUSA is a member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. [15]

Since its founding, GSUSA has grown to include 111 Girl Scout councils in the U.S. and overseas. [16] According to data released in 2018, GSUSA membership has fallen to approximately 1.76 million girls and 780,000 adult members, down from 2.9 million girls and 900,000 adult volunteers in 2003. [17] GSUSA sued BSA for “deceptive marketing” in a trademark lawsuit regarding the use of the terms “scout” and “scouting” in ads aimed at girls in part of what GSUSA calls a “ground war” against it, but tentatively lost the lawsuit as of September 2021. [18]

In the 1970s, GSUSA had prominent left-progressive feminists like Betty Friedan in its leadership and endorsed left-progressive causes such as the Equal Rights Amendment. [19] [20] In 2011, GSUSA changed its membership policies and allowed transgender individuals to join the organization. [21]

Sofia Chang has been the CEO of GSUSA since January 27, 2022. Chang previously was an executive at HBO/Warner Media, where she worked on issues including diversity. She has worked on the board of the Time Warner Foundation and as a member of HBO’s diversity council. She is on the board of the University of Pennsylvania’s Professional Women’s Alliance. [22]

Activities and Funding

Girl Scouts of the United States of America (GSUSA)’s programming has traditionally emphasized service, interaction with the outdoors, and self-reliance training for girls. [23] Current programming also includes development and adult learning opportunities for girls in the U.S. to “better understand and respect other cultures,” engagement with national membership, and work on issues that impact girls and women at the local, national, and global level. [24]

GSUSA advocates for federal and state policy approaches with respect to GSUSA and the broader nonprofit ecosystem. [25] [26] [27] It also promotes lifelong radical-left activist and academic Angela Davis, left-of-center activist-philanthropist Melinda Gates, labor union activist Dolores Huerta, feminist journalist Gloria Steinem, and others as noteworthy “activist” alums. [28]

Activism and Controversies

Amy Coney Barrett

In October 2020, GSAUSA faced public criticism from U.S. Representative Ayana Pressley (D-MA) and others for posting a tweet on Twitter that congratulated Amy Coney Barrett for becoming the fifth woman appointed to the United States Supreme Court since its inception in 1789. [29] In response to the largely left-of-center criticism that viewed the tweet as political in nature, GSUSA deleted the tweet and issued a statement which said GSUSA is a “nonpolitical, nonpartisan” organization. Right-of-center organizations including the Independent Women’s Forum then criticized GSUSA for its decision to remove the tweet in the face of political criticism. [30]

Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion

In 2021, Girl Scouts of the United States of America received a $500,000 grant from the left-of-center Ford Foundation to become a critical race theory-influenced “anti-racist organization.” [31] [32] According to GSUSA, this grant “marks the first major funding towards GSUSA’s commitment to becoming an anti-racist organization” and supports GSUSA’s diversity, equity, inclusion, access, and racial justice work. [33]

In the summer of 2020, GSUSA released a critical race theory-inspired “anti-racism” patch for their uniforms [34] which “represents the values of the Girl Scout Movement. [35] This decision came after GSUSA established an internal diversity, equity, and inclusion taskforce and a critical race theory-inspired “racial justice steering committee” in 2020 designed to help “create an organization that works for all girls, including by ensuring that black, indigenous, Latina, and all girls of color feel supported, welcomed, and treated with dignity and respect.” [36]

That same year, GSUSA established the Fair Play, Equal Pay certification which rates businesses on gender parity assessments based on assessments and analytical tools developed by the Canadian organization Women in Governance, which was founded by a grant from the David and Laura Lovell Foundation. [37] [38] The initiative is designed to build a more “equitable future” for girls and ensure that “diverse women” hold 30 percent of leadership roles by 2030 and follows the objectives stated in GSUSA’s Gender Parity Pledge. [39]

GSUSA also supports the far-left Black Lives Matter movement [40] and “advocates for climate justice.” [41]

Planned Parenthood

Girl Scouts of the United States of America has been inaccurately accused of having a relationship with the pro-abortion organization Planned Parenthood. [42] GSUSA has stated that the organization “does not have a relationship or partnership with Planned Parenthood” [43] and it did not make grants to Planned Parenthood in its most recent publicly available tax filings. [44]

Politifact, a left-of-center “fact-checking” journalism organization, adjudged that the erroneous belief that Planned Parenthood and the Girl Scouts had a formal relationship may have derived from a 2004 Texas controversy in which a “Waco-area council had put its name and logo on Planned Parenthood brochures that advertised sex-education programs, and also had given a “woman of distinction” award to a Planned Parenthood executive.” [45]

The then-national executive stated that the Girl Scouts “partner with many organizations. We have relationships with our church communities, with YWCAs and with Planned Parenthood organizations across the country, to bring information-based sex education programs to girls.” [46]

GSUSA does not take a public stance on abortion or sexuality issues, though it has allowed transgender individuals to join since 2011. GSUSA allows all individuals who are recognized by their school and family as a girl and live culturally as a girl to join the organization. [47]

In 2014, the Girl Scouts listed then-Texas State Sen. Wendy Davis (D-Fort Worth) and then-Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius as “women who made a difference in 2013.” Both Davis and Sebelius are prominent political supporters of abortion; the Girl Scouts denied that the listing amounted to an endorsement of either figure. [48]

Funding

In 2021, Girl Scouts of the United States of America received a $500,000 grant from the left-of-center Ford Foundation to become a critical race theory-influenced “anti-racist organization.” [49] [50]

In 2020, GSUSA reported revenue of $122,222,860 and expenses of $122,770,123. [51]  GSUSA reported revenue of $122,052,984 and expenses of $130,040,613 in 2019. [52] Much of the organization’s funding comes from program service fees and grants and fundraising efforts such as the Girl Scout Cookies program. [53]

GSUSA’s national benefactors include Amazon, the Charles Schwab Foundation for Financial Freedom, the David and Laura Lovell Foundation, General Motors, Lydia Hill Foundation, Seti Institute, Johnson and Johnson, Arconic Foundation, Citi Foundation, Finra Foundation, Infosys Foundation, Margaret Cargill Philanthropies, Microsoft, New York Life Foundation, RSM Foundation, the VF Foundation, and others. [54]

In 2019, GSUSA received a $100,000 grant from the RSM US Foundation. [55] GSUSA received an $824,944 grant from the Seti Institute in 2017;  [56] $50,000 from the American Petroleum Institute in 2017; [57] and $100,500 from the left-of-center California Community Foundation in 2014. [58] GSUSA has also received grants of greater than $5,000 from the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), JPMorgan Chase Foundation, Walmart Foundation, and others. [59]

References

  1. [1] “Girl Scout History.” Girl Scouts of the United States of America. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://www.girlscouts.org/en/discover/about-us/history.html. ^
  2. Crary, David. “Girl Scouts tweet, then delete post about Amy Coney Barrett.” Associated Press. October 29, 2020. Accessed March 19, 2022. https://apnews.com/article/girl-scouts-amy-coney-barrett-tweet-e6138c4caff1316b99ab039d56d042edl. ^
  3. Callahan, Michael. Facebook Post. Facebook. Posted February 4, 2022. Accessed March 20, 2022. Accessed via Web Archive. https://archive.ph/4Oo9S ^
  4. Curet, Monique. “Politifact – Girl Scouts Not Linked to Planned Parenthood or Politicians.” PolitiFact, February 10, 2022. https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2022/feb/10/facebook-posts/girl-scouts-not-linked-planned-parenthood-or-polit/?fbclid=IwAR1ii7wXk3Bl8vt0fjHMDUa9pqGIwCGbP3P10fizTSfcpgBmapUUR43J-30 ^
  5. Van Voris, Bob. “Boy Scouts ‘Tentatively’ Beat Girl Scouts in Trademark Case.” Bloomberg Equality. September 15, 2021. Accessed March 21, 2022. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-09-15/judge-gives-tentative-ruling-favoring-boy-scouts-of-america. ^
  6. Crary, David. “Girl Scouts tweet, then delete post about Amy Coney Barrett.” Associated Press. October 29, 2020. Accessed March 19, 2022. https://apnews.com/article/girl-scouts-amy-coney-barrett-tweet-e6138c4caff1316b99ab039d56d042edl. ^
  7. [1] Crary, David. “Girl Scouts tweet, then delete post about Amy Coney Barrett.” Associated Press. October 29, 2020. Accessed March 19, 2022. https://apnews.com/article/girl-scouts-amy-coney-barrett-tweet-e6138c4caff1316b99ab039d56d042edl. ^
  8. Hall, Madison. “The Girl Scouts received a $500,000 grant to become an anti-racist organization.” Insider. April 1, 2021. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://www.insider.com/girl-scouts-becoming-anti-racist-organization-2021-4. ^
  9. “Ford Foundation.” Girl Scouts. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://www.girlscouts.org/en/support-us/invest/our-partners/ford-foundation.html. ^
  10. “Tweet.” Twitter. Posted June 17, 2020. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://twitter.com/girlscouts/status/1273291792721547269. ^
  11. “Girl Scouts of the USA Names Former Warner Media Executive Sofia Chang as CEO.” December 14, 2021. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://www.girlscouts.org/en/footer/press-room/2021/girl-scouts-of-the-USA-names-former-warner-media-executive-sofia-chang-as-CEO.html ^
  12. “Anti-Racism Sew-On Patch.” Girl Scouts Store. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://www.girlscoutshop.com/anti-racism-sew-on-patch. ^
  13. “Girl Scouts and Anti-Racism Patch.” Girl Scouts of the United States. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://www.gsema.org/content/dam/girlscouts-girlscoutseasternmass/documents/recogs/GSEMA_Anti-Racism_Patch.pdf. ^
  14. “Girl Scout History.” Girl Scouts of the United States of America. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://www.girlscouts.org/en/discover/about-us/history.html. ^
  15. “Frequently Asked Questions.” Girl Scouts. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://www.girlscouts.org/en/footer/faq/social-isues-faq.html. ^
  16. “Girl Scouts of the United States of America.” Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax. (Form 990). 2019. Part III. https://projects.propublica.org/nonprofits/organizations/131624016/202131319349302813/full. ^
  17. Crary, David. “Girl Scouts tweet, then delete post about Amy Coney Barrett.” Associated Press. October 29, 2020. Accessed March 19, 2022. https://apnews.com/article/girl-scouts-amy-coney-barrett-tweet-e6138c4caff1316b99ab039d56d042edl. ^
  18. Van Voris, Bob. “Boy Scouts ‘Tentatively’ Beat Girl Scouts in Trademark Case.” Bloomberg Equality. September 15, 2021. Accessed March 21, 2022. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-09-15/judge-gives-tentative-ruling-favoring-boy-scouts-of-america. ^
  19. Crary, David. “Girl Scouts tweet, then delete post about Amy Coney Barrett.” Associated Press. October 29, 2020. Accessed March 19, 2022. https://apnews.com/article/girl-scouts-amy-coney-barrett-tweet-e6138c4caff1316b99ab039d56d042edl. ^
  20. Reske, Phyllis. “Responding to Change: Girl Scouts, Race, and the Feminist Movement.” University of Wisconsin Milwaukee. December 2018. Accessed March 21, 2022. https://dc.uwm.edu/etd/2012/. ^
  21. Ruiz, Rebecca. “Girl Scouts launches major effort to become anti-racist.” Mashable. March 30, 2021. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://mashable.com/article/girl-scouts-anti-racist. ^
  22. “Girl Scouts of the USA Names Former Warner Media Executive Sofia Chang as CEO.” December 14, 2021. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://www.girlscouts.org/en/footer/press-room/2021/girl-scouts-of-the-USA-names-former-warner-media-executive-sofia-chang-as-CEO.html. ^
  23.  “Girl Scout History.” Girl Scouts of the United States of America. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://www.girlscouts.org/en/discover/about-us/history.html. ^
  24. “Girl Scouts of the United States of America.” Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax. (Form 990). 2019. Part III. https://projects.propublica.org/nonprofits/organizations/131624016/202131319349302813/full. ^
  25. “Girl Scouts of the USA 2021-2022 Federal Policy Agenda.” Girl Scouts. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://www.girlscouts.org/content/dam/girlscouts-gsusa/forms-and-documents/about-girl-scouts/advocacy/GSUSA_2020-federal-legislative-agenda.pdf. ^
  26. “2021-2022 State Policy Agenda.” Girl Scouts. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://www.girlscouts.org/content/dam/girlscouts-gsusa/forms-and-documents/about-girl-scouts/advocacy/GSUSA_2020-Girl-Scout-State-Legislative-Agenda.pdf. ^
  27. “Policy Agenda.” Girl Scouts. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://www.girlscouts.org/en/support-us/advocacy/policy-agenda.html. ^
  28. “Noteworthy Alums.” Girl Scouts. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://www.girlscouts.org/en/get-involved/alums/noteworthy-alums.html. ^
  29. Crary, David. “Girl Scouts tweet, then delete post about Amy Coney Barrett.” Associated Press. October 29, 2020. Accessed March 19, 2022. https://apnews.com/article/girl-scouts-amy-coney-barrett-tweet-e6138c4caff1316b99ab039d56d042edl. ^
  30.  [1] Crary, David. “Girl Scouts tweet, then delete post about Amy Coney Barrett.” Associated Press. October 29, 2020. Accessed March 19, 2022. https://apnews.com/article/girl-scouts-amy-coney-barrett-tweet-e6138c4caff1316b99ab039d56d042edl. ^
  31. Hall, Madison. “The Girl Scouts received a $500,000 grant to become an anti-racist organization.” Insider. April 1, 2021. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://www.insider.com/girl-scouts-becoming-anti-racist-organization-2021-4. ^
  32. “Ford Foundation.” Girl Scouts. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://www.girlscouts.org/en/support-us/invest/our-partners/ford-foundation.html. ^
  33.  “Girl Scouts of the USA Receives Funding from the Ford Foundation to Support Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, Access, and Racial Justice Work.” Girl Scouts of the United States of America. March 30, 2021. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://www.girlscouts.org/en/footer/press-room/2021/gsusa-receives-funding-ford-foundation-support-racial-justice.html. ^
  34. “Girl Scouts and Anti-Racism Patch.” Girl Scouts of the United States. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://www.gsema.org/content/dam/girlscouts-girlscoutseasternmass/documents/recogs/GSEMA_Anti-Racism_Patch.pdf. ^
  35. [1] “Anti-Racism Sew-On Patch.” Girl Scouts Store. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://www.girlscoutshop.com/anti-racism-sew-on-patch. ^
  36. Hall, Madison. “The Girl Scouts received a $500,000 grant to become an anti-racist organization.” Insider. April 1, 2021. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://www.insider.com/girl-scouts-becoming-anti-racist-organization-2021-4. ^
  37. Stych, Anne. “Girl Scouts launch gender equity certification for businesses.” BizWomen. February 28, 2020. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://www.bizjournals.com/bizwomen/news/latest-news/2020/02/girl-scouts-launch-gender-equity-certification-for.html?page=all. ^
  38. “Fair Play, Equal Pay ®.” Girl Scouts. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://www.girlscouts.org/en/support-us/advocacy/fairplayequalpay.html. ^
  39. “Fair Play, Equal Pay ®.” Girl Scouts. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://www.girlscouts.org/en/support-us/advocacy/fairplayequalpay.html. ^
  40. “Tweet.” Twitter. Posted June 17, 2020. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://twitter.com/girlscouts/status/1273291792721547269. ^
  41. “Girl Scouts of the USA Names Former Warner Media Executive Sofia Chang as CEO.” December 14, 2021. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://www.girlscouts.org/en/footer/press-room/2021/girl-scouts-of-the-USA-names-former-warner-media-executive-sofia-chang-as-CEO.html. ^
  42. Callahan, Michael. Facebook Post. Facebook. Posted February 4, 2022. Accessed March 20, 2022. Accessed via Web Archive. https://archive.ph/4Oo9S ^
  43. “Frequently Asked Questions.” Girl Scouts of the United States of America. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://www.girlscouts.org/en/footer/faq/social-isues-faq.html. ^
  44. “Girl Scouts of the United States of America.” Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax. (Form 990). 2019. Part III. https://projects.propublica.org/nonprofits/organizations/131624016/202131319349302813/full. ^
  45. Curet, Monique. “Politifact – Girl Scouts Not Linked to Planned Parenthood or Politicians.” PolitiFact, February 10, 2022. https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2022/feb/10/facebook-posts/girl-scouts-not-linked-planned-parenthood-or-polit/?fbclid=IwAR1ii7wXk3Bl8vt0fjHMDUa9pqGIwCGbP3P10fizTSfcpgBmapUUR43J-30. ^
  46. Quoted in Curet, Monique. “Politifact – Girl Scouts Not Linked to Planned Parenthood or Politicians.” PolitiFact, February 10, 2022. https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2022/feb/10/facebook-posts/girl-scouts-not-linked-planned-parenthood-or-polit/?fbclid=IwAR1ii7wXk3Bl8vt0fjHMDUa9pqGIwCGbP3P10fizTSfcpgBmapUUR43J-30. ^
  47. “Social Issues.” Girl Scouts of the United States. Accessed March 21, 2022. https://www.girlscouts.org/en/footer/faq/social-isues-faq.html. ^
  48.  Quoted in Curet, Monique. “Politifact – Girl Scouts Not Linked to Planned Parenthood or Politicians.” PolitiFact, February 10, 2022. https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2022/feb/10/facebook-posts/girl-scouts-not-linked-planned-parenthood-or-polit/?fbclid=IwAR1ii7wXk3Bl8vt0fjHMDUa9pqGIwCGbP3P10fizTSfcpgBmapUUR43J-30. ^
  49. Hall, Madison. “The Girl Scouts received a $500,000 grant to become an anti-racist organization.” Insider. April 1, 2021. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://www.insider.com/girl-scouts-becoming-anti-racist-organization-2021-4. ^
  50. “Ford Foundation.” Girl Scouts. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://www.girlscouts.org/en/support-us/invest/our-partners/ford-foundation.html. ^
  51. “Girl Scouts of the United States of America.” Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax. (Form 990). 2019. https://projects.propublica.org/nonprofits/organizations/131624016/202131319349302813/full. ^
  52. “Girl Scouts of the United States of America.” Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax. (Form 990). 2019. https://projects.propublica.org/nonprofits/organizations/131624016/202131319349302813/full. ^
  53. “About Girl Scout Cookies.” Girl Scouts. Accessed March 21, 2022. https://www.girlscouts.org/en/cookies/about-girl-scout-cookies.html. ^
  54. “Corporate and Foundation Champions.” Girl Scouts. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://www.girlscouts.org/en/support-us/invest/our-partners.html. ^
  55. [1] “RSM US Foundation.” Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax. (Form 990). 2019. Schedule I. https://projects.propublica.org/nonprofits/organizations/472248988/202023219349321337/full. ^
  56. “Seti Institute.” Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax. (Form 990). 2017. Schedule I. https://projects.propublica.org/nonprofits/organizations/942951356/201930949349300418/full. ^
  57. “American Petroleum Institute.” Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax. (Form 990). 2017. Schedule I. https://projects.propublica.org/nonprofits/organizations/130433430/201843199349301434/full. ^
  58. “California Community Foundation.” Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax. (Form 990). 2014. Schedule I. https://projects.propublica.org/nonprofits/organizations/953510055/201631239349300738/IRS990ScheduleI. ^
  59. “Individual Giving.” Girl Scouts of the USA. Accessed March 20, 2022. https://www.girlscouts.org/en/support-us/invest/individual-giving-ways-to-give-designated-funds.html. ^
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Nonprofit Information

  • Accounting Period: September - August
  • Tax Exemption Received: May 1, 1919

  • Available Filings

    Period Form Type Total revenue Total functional expenses Total assets (EOY) Total liabilities (EOY) Unrelated business income? Total contributions Program service revenue Investment income Comp. of current officers, directors, etc. Form 990
    2019 Sep Form 990 $122,052,984 $130,040,613 $271,397,447 $83,678,948 Y $15,611,118 $66,909,812 $2,459,408 $4,682,128 PDF
    2018 Sep Form 990 $132,472,312 $124,809,237 $272,718,664 $73,890,445 Y $15,983,792 $70,805,592 $2,362,831 $4,317,556 PDF
    2017 Sep Form 990 $145,210,333 $100,789,667 $270,479,470 $87,192,640 Y $14,382,286 $45,986,463 $1,700,112 $3,949,264 PDF
    2016 Sep Form 990 $92,413,077 $98,235,343 $194,790,435 $74,367,668 Y $10,409,970 $45,225,515 $1,375,438 $3,194,997
    2015 Sep Form 990 $94,683,567 $93,280,638 $189,759,993 $69,580,367 Y $9,860,736 $44,518,433 $1,487,032 $1,975,614 PDF
    2014 Sep Form 990 $94,543,136 $89,705,735 $199,618,501 $63,220,671 Y $9,435,368 $44,509,412 $1,212,512 $2,611,831 PDF
    2013 Sep Form 990 $90,417,143 $96,595,301 $185,681,689 $55,377,654 Y $8,358,972 $39,249,639 $1,534,757 $3,010,142 PDF
    2012 Sep Form 990 $105,217,626 $99,357,552 $186,228,734 $60,791,996 Y $10,712,648 $44,373,072 $2,503,641 $2,783,787 PDF
    2011 Sep Form 990 $90,091,416 $89,593,125 $170,148,603 $60,684,763 Y $7,261,167 $41,776,093 $1,990,950 $2,125,256 PDF

    Additional Filings (PDFs)

    Girl Scouts of the United States of America (GSUSA)

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